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Ziphiidae (beaked whale)

Mammalia - Artiodactyla - Ziphiidae

Taxonomy
Ziphiidae was named by Gray (1850) [Gray (1850) originally named the subtribe Ziphiina.]. It is extant. It was considered monophyletic by Berta et al. (2006) and Uhen et al. (2008).

It was reranked as the tribe Ziphiina by Gray (1864), Gray (1865), Flower (1867), Gill (1872), Lydekker (1887), Cope (1895), Trouessart (1898), Abel (1905), True (1908), Abel (1919), Miller (1923), Dal Piaz (1929), Hay (1930), Simpson (1945), Fraser and Purves (1960), Kasuya (1973), Ginsburg and Janvier (1975), Muizon (1984), Barnes et al. (1985), Carroll (1988), Muizon (1991), Nowak (1991), Fordyce and Barnes (1994), Bianucci et al. (1994), Morgan (1994), Fordyce et al. (1995), McKenna and Bell (1997), Rice (1998), Fordyce and de Muizon (2001), Geisler and Sanders (2003), Lambert (2005), Berta et al. (2006) and Lambert and Louwye (2006); it was reranked as the tribe Ziphiini by Moore (1968), Muizon (1991) and Bianucci et al. (1994).

It was assigned to Delphinidae by Gray (1864); to Denticete by Gill (1871) and Gill (1872); to Denticete by Gray (1866) and Gill (1873); to Odontoceta by Ameghino (1889); to Odontocete by Hay (1930); to Squaloceti by Abel (1914), Abel (1919), Portis (1925), Dal Piaz (1929) and Van Deinse (1931); to Hyperoodontidae by Moore (1968); to Cetacea by Nowak (1991); to Ziphiinae by Muizon (1991) and Bianucci et al. (1994); to Physeteridae by Lydekker (1887), Trouessart (1898) and McKenna and Bell (1997); to Mysticeti by Bergqvist et al. (1999); to Delphinoidea by Gray (1865) and Norman and Mead (2001); to Physeteroidea by Gray (1871), Simpson (1945), Ginsburg and Janvier (1975), Muizon (1984) and Geisler and Sanders (2003); to Ziphioidea by Gray (1868), Cope (1895), Ellerman and Morrisson-Scott (1951), Fraser and Purves (1960), Kasuya (1973), Barnes et al. (1985), Vidal (1991), Muizon (1991), Fordyce and Barnes (1994), Bianucci et al. (1994), Fordyce et al. (1995), Rice (1998), Fordyce and de Muizon (2001), Rice (2002), Gingerich (2005), Berta et al. (2006), Bianucci and Landini (2007), Foekens (2008), Whitmore and Kaltenbach (2008), Uhen et al. (2008) and Rice (2009); to Eurhinodelphinoidea by Bianucci et al. (2011); to Odontoceti by Slijper (1936), Agnarsson and May-Collado (2008) and Bianucci et al. (2016); to Synrhina by Geisler et al. (2011), Marx et al. (2016) and Berta (2017); and to Odontoceti by Flower (1867), Abel (1905), True (1908), Miller (1923), Kellogg (1928), Scheffer and Rice (1963), Pilleri (1985), Loughlin and Perez (1985), Carroll (1988), Benton (1993), Morgan (1994), Bianucci (1997), Mead and Brownell (2005), Lambert (2005), Lambert and Louwye (2006), Bianucci et al. (2007), Bianucci et al. (2010), Bianucci et al. (2016), Lambert et al. (2018) and Ramassamy et al. (2018).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1846Hyperoodontina Gray p. Del
1849Hyperoodontina Bonaparte p. 618
1850Hyperoodontina Bonaparte p. 1
1850Ziphiidae Gray p. 241
1864Hyperoodontina Gray p. 239
1864Ziphiina Gray p. 241
1865Hyperoodontina Gray p. 528
1865Ziphiina Gray p. 529
1866Hyperoodontidae Gray p. 62
1866Ziphiidae Gray p. 325
1867Ziphiina Flower p. 115
1868Ziphiopsis servatus Du Bus
1868Ziphiopsis Du Bus p. 628
1868Ziphiopsis phymatodes Du Bus p. 628
1868Hyperoodontidae Gray p. 9
1868Ziphiidae Gray p. 10
1871Ziphiidae Gill p. 124
1871Ziphiidae Gray p. 99
1872Ziphiina Gill p. 96
1872Ziphiopsis Gill p. 96
1873Ziphiidae Gill p. 27
1874Ziphiopsis phymatodes Vanden Broeck p. 146
1874Ziphiopsis servatus Vanden Broeck p. 146
1874Synostodon Vanden Broeck p. 147
1876Eboroziphius Leidy p. 81
1876Eboroziphius coelops Leidy p. 81
1877Eboroziphius coelops Leidy p. 224
1880Ziphiopsis phymatodes Van Beneden and Gervais p. 416
1880Ziphiopsis servatus Van Beneden and Gervais p. 416
1885Dioplodon senensis Capellini p. 298 figs. Plate 1, Fig. 13-16
1887Ziphiina Lydekker p. 63
1889Ziphiidae Ameghino p. 887
1894Dioplodon senensis Vigliarolo p. 15
1895Choneziphiidae Cope p. 137
1895Pelycorhamphus Cope pp. 137-139
1895Pelycorhamphus pertortus Cope p. 137
1895Ziphiina Cope p. 137
1898Pelycorhamphus Trouessart p. 1057
1898Pelycorhamphus pertortus Trouessart p. 1057
1898Ziphiina Trouessart p. 1057
1898Choneziphius coelops Trouessart p. 1060
1898Ziphiopsis Trouessart p. 1061
1898Ziphiopsis phymatodes Trouessart p. 1061
1898Ziphiopsis servatus Trouessart p. 1061
1898Mesoplodon senensis Trouessart p. 1065
1902Choneziphius coelops Hay p. 596
1902Pelycorhamphus Hay p. 597
1902Pelycorhamphus pertortus Hay p. 597
1904Eboroziphius Palmer p. 248
1904Pelycorhamphus Palmer p. 521
1904Ziphiopsis Palmer p. 715
1904Pelycorhamphus Trouessart p. 775
1904Pelycorhamphus pertortus Trouessart p. 775
1904Choneziphius coelops Trouessart p. 776
1904Ziphiopsis Trouessart p. 776
1904Ziphiopsis phymatodes Trouessart p. 776
1904Ziphiopsis servatus Trouessart p. 776
1904Mesoplodon senensis Trouessart p. 777
1905Ziphiina Abel p. 88
1908Ziphiina True p. 391
1911Dioplodon senensis Capellini p. 115
1914Ziphiidae Abel p. 221
1919Ziphiina Abel p. 767
1923Ziphiina Miller p. 40
1925Ziphiidae Portis p. 14
1928Ziphiidae Kellogg p. 32 figs. Table 1
1928Eboroziphius Kellogg p. 33 figs. Table 1
1928Pelycorhamphus Kellogg p. 33 figs. Table 1
1929Ziphiina Dal Piaz p. 82
1930Ziphiina Hay p. 582
1930Eboroziphius Hay p. 583
1930Eboroziphius coelops Hay p. 583
1930Pelycorhamphus Hay p. 583
1930Pelycorhamphus pertortus Hay p. 584
1931Ziphiidae Van Deinse p. 33
1936Ziphiidae Slijper p. 549
1945Eboroziphius Simpson p. 101
1945Ziphiina Simpson p. 101
1951Ziphiidae Ellerman and Morrisson-Scott p. 723
1960Ziphiina Fraser and Purves p. 112 figs. Figure 26
1963Ziphiidae Scheffer and Rice p. 8
1968Ziphiini Moore p. 238
1968Hyperoodontidae Moore p. 276
1968Hyperoodontini Moore p. 276
1973Ziphiina Kasuya p. 61
1975Ziphiina Ginsburg and Janvier p. 82
1975Eboroziphius Mead p. 750 figs. Table 1
1975Pelycorhamphus Mead p. 750 figs. Table 1
1982Mesoplodon (Dioplodon) senensis Pilleri and Pilleri p. 311
1984Ziphiina Muizon p. 135
1985Ziphiina Barnes et al. p. 26
1985Ziphiidae Loughlin and Perez p. 1
1985Ziphiidae Pilleri p. 30
1987Mesoplodon senensis Pilleri p. 88
1988Eboroziphius Carroll
1988Ziphiina Carroll
1991Ziphiini Muizon
1991Ziphiina Muizon p. 294
1991Ziphiina Nowak
1991Ziphiidae Vidal p. 5
1993Ziphiidae Benton p. 379
1994Ziphiina Bianucci et al. p. 232
1994Ziphiini Bianucci et al. p. 238
1994Ziphiina Fordyce and Barnes p. 428 figs. Table 1
1994Ziphiina Morgan p. 254
1995Ziphiina Fordyce et al. p. 379
1997Ziphiidae Bianucci p. 61
1997Hyperoodontidae McKenna and Bell p. 381
1997Pelycorhamphus McKenna and Bell p. 381
1997Ziphiina McKenna and Bell p. 381
1997Eboroziphius McKenna and Bell p. 382
1998Ziphiina Rice p. 86
1999Ziphiidae Bergqvist et al. p. 31
2001Ziphiina Fordyce and de Muizon p. 179
2001Ziphiidae Norman and Mead p. 1
2002Ziphiidae Rice p. 231 figs. Table 1
2002Eboroziphius Sepkoski, Jr.
2003Ziphiina Geisler and Sanders p. 29
2005Ziphiidae Gingerich p. 237 figs. Table 15.1
2005Ziphiina Lambert p. 445
2005Eboroziphius Lambert p. 446
2005Pelycorhamphus Lambert p. 446
2005Pelycorhamphus pertortus Lambert p. 482
2005Ziphiidae Mead and Brownell p. 739
2006Ziphiina Berta et al. p. 501
2006Ziphiina Lambert and Louwye p. 182
2007Ziphiidae Bianucci et al. p. 565
2007Ziphiidae Bianucci and Landini p. 45 figs. Table 2.1
2008Ziphiidae Agnarsson and May-Collado p. 981 figs. Fig. 4.3
2008Ziphiidae Foekens p. 7 figs. Table 1
2008Ziphiidae Uhen et al. p. 578
2008Eboroziphius Uhen et al. p. 579
2008Eboroziphius coelops Uhen et al. p. 579
2008Pelycorhamphus Uhen et al. p. 579
2008Pelycorhamphus pertortus Uhen et al. p. 579
2008Ziphiidae Whitmore and Kaltenbach p. 194
2009Ziphiidae Rice p. 235 figs. Table 1
2010Ziphiidae Bianucci et al. p. 1080
2011Ziphiidae Bianucci et al. p. 567
2011Ziphiidae Geisler et al. p. 29 figs. Figure 5
2016Ziphiidae Bianucci et al. p. 65
2016Ziphiidae Bianucci et al.
2016Ziphiidae Marx et al. p. 129
2017Ziphiidae Berta p. 161
2017Eboroziphius Berta p. 162
2018Ziphiidae Lambert et al. p. 138
2018Ziphiidae Ramassamy et al. p. 14

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
RankNameAuthor
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
orderArtiodactyla()
Cetacea()
Pelagiceti
Neoceti
Odontoceti()
Synrhina
familyZiphiidae
familyZiphiidae

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
M. D. Uhen et al. 2008The beaked whales represent a single living family Ziphiidae that takes its identity from the living Cuvier’s beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris Cuvier 1823 (Heyning 1989b). The alternative family name, Hyperoodontidae, is not followed here (see e.g. Moore 1968, McKenna and Bell 1997, Rice 1998). Crown-group Ziphiidae comprises living species in the genera Ziphius, Mesoplodon, Indopacetus, Berardius, Hyperoodon and Tasmacetus, and all descendants of their most-recent common ancestor. Relationships between the living genera and especially within Mesoplodon have long been vexing (compare e.g. Moore 1968, Muizon 1991, Dalebout et al. 1998, 2002). Opinions vary on whether Ziphiidae belong close to Physeter and Kogia in the Physeteroidea, or whether they are closer to Delphinida and other more-crownward odontocetes. Ziphiids are structurally quite disparate from other odontocetes, which explains their placement by some authors in a separate superfamily (Fraser and Purves 1960).
There is much literature on the supposed diagnostic features of living Ziphiidae (e.g. Flower 1872, True 1910a, Kernan 1919, Fraser and Purves 1960, Heyning 1989a, contributors to Ridgway and Harrison 1989), but limited discussion of osteological synapomorphies. Diagnostic bony features include the following (based on Heyning 1989a, Muizon 1991, plus direct observations): rostrum long, distally usually narrow and subcylindrical; pterygoid sinus and associated fossa on basicranium voluminous, long and deep, extending forward on rostrum; apical or symphysial mandibular teeth enlarged, with post-apical or post-symphyseal teeth small or not erupted; teeth markedly sexually dimorphic (reduced in females); posterior process of tympanic bulla thickened distally and underlying paroccipital process of exoccipital; extreme reduction of the tuberculum of the malleus; body in the living animal markedly deeper than wide, with concomitantly tall neural spines on thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. In most genera, the skull is deeply basined at the face – thus with an elevated vertex and generally the concomitant of a transverse premaxillary crest (Heyning 1989a), and the rostrum may be densely ossified (Zioupos et al., 1997).
Ziphiids have an extensive late Miocene and younger record. The oldest well-preserved skull of a named species appears to be that of the late Miocene Messapicetus longirostris (Italy; Bianucci, Landini, and Varola, 1992). Worldwide, most of the fossil ziphiids described are dense secondarily ossified jaws - rosta or mandibles – without associated crania (e.g. Owen 1889, Glaessner 1947, Whitmore, Morejohn, and Mullins, 1986). Mead (1975b) cautioned that such material cannot be reliably referred to genus. Further, such jaws often occur as fossils in sediment-starved sequences associated with unconformities, settings that might indicate reworking from older rocks.