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Phiomia major

Mammalia - Proboscidea - Palaeomastodontidae

Taxonomy
Phiomia major was named by Sanders et al. (2004). Its type specimen is CH17−1, a set of teeth, and it is not a trace fossil. Its type locality is Chilga, which is in a Chattian fluvial lignite/siltstone in Ethiopia.

Synonymy list
YearName and author
2004Phiomia major Sanders et al. pp. 377-381 figs. 6-11
2010Phiomia major Sanders et al. p. 182

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
RankNameAuthor
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
AfrotheriaStanhope et al. 1998
Tethytheria
orderProboscidea()
suborderElephantiformesTassy 1988
familyPalaeomastodontidae
genusPhiomiaAndrews and Beadnell 1902
speciesmajor

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
W. Sanders et al. 2004Large species of Phiomia; molar size range surpasses dimensions of Fayum palaeomastodonts and symphysis and incisors much longer than in Palaeomastodon and other species of Phiomia (Table 3; Fig. 12); further distinguished from Palaeomastodon by absence of posttrite cristae (“zygodont crests”), presence of a central conelet in the posterior loph of P4, and by full trilophodonty of molars, including M3/m3. Differentiated from Miocene elephantoid taxa (for example, Hemimastodon, gomphotheres, mammutids) by smaller size of molars (Fig. 12), lack of features such as zygodont crests, crescentoids, and pretrite anterior and posterior accessory central conules throughout the crown, and trilophodont m3 with a diminutive posterior cingulid. Distinguished from Moeritherium by larger size, development of incisors into tusks, and trilophodont intermediate molars.