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Metaxytherium subapenninum

Mammalia - Sirenia - Dugongidae

Taxonomy
Cheirotherium subapenninum was named by Bruno (1839) [PU = Museo di Geologia e Paleontologia dell’Universita` di Torino, Torino, Italy.]. Its type specimen is PU 13889–13890, a skull (skull & partial skeleton), and it is a 3D body fossil.

It was recombined as Halitherium subapenninum by Bronn (1853); it was recombined as Felsinotherium subapenninum by de Zigno (1878) and Abel (1904); it was recombined as Felsinotherium subappeninum by Trouessart (1898) and Trouessart (1904); it was recombined as Metaxytherium subappennium by Fondi and Pacini (1974); it was recombined as Metaxytherium subapenninum by PIlleri (1988), Domning (1994), Domning (1996), Sorbi et al. (2012) and Voss (2014).

Sister species lacking formal opinion data

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Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1839Cheirotherium subapenninum Bruno p. 160
1844Manatus brochii de Blainville
1844Cheirotherium brochii de Blainville p. 121
1846Metaxytherium brochii Laurillard p. 171
1847Halitherium brochii Gervais p. 221
1848Halianassa brochii Bronn p. 562
1853Halitherium subapenninum Bronn p. 789
1855Cheirotherium subapenninum Kaup p. 11
1872Felsinotherium forestii Capellini
1872Felsinotherium gervaisi Capellini p. 634
1878Felsinotherium subapenninum de Zigno p. 70
1878Felsinotherium gastaldi de Zigno p. 941 figs. Plates I-VI
1885Cheirotherium subapenninum Woodward p. 424
1885Felsinotherium forestii Woodward p. 424
1885Felsinotherium gervaisii Woodward p. 424
1887Halitherium forestii Lydekker p. 5
1898Felsinotherium forestii Trouessart p. 1005
1898Felsinotherium subappeninum Trouessart p. 1005
1904Felsinotherium subapenninum Abel p. 215
1904Felsinotherium foresti Trouessart p. 750
1904Felsinotherium subappeninum Trouessart p. 750
1910Felsinotherium subalpinum Isel p. 203
1925Felsinotherium forestii Zittel p. 265
1974Metaxytherium forestii Fondi and Pacini p. 37
1974Metaxytherium gastaldi Fondi and Pacini p. 45
1974Metaxytherium gervaisi Fondi and Pacini p. 45
1974Metaxytherium subappennium Fondi and Pacini p. 45
1988Metaxytherium subapenninum PIlleri pp. 56-57
1994Metaxytherium subapenninum Domning p. 189
1996Metaxytherium subapenninum Domning p. 387
2012Metaxytherium subapenninum Sorbi et al. p. 688
2014Metaxytherium subapenninum Voss p. 91 figs. Figure 3

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
RankNameAuthor
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
AfrotheriaStanhope et al. 1998
Tethytheria
orderSirenia()
familyDugongidae
genusMetaxytherium
speciessubapenninum()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
S. Sorbi et al. 2012Differs from some or all other species of Metaxytherium by having: large body size (4–5 m); nasal process of premaxilla dorsally broadened; in- fraorbital foramen very large [c. 13(2)]; nasal incisure at posterior end of mesorostral fossa absent [c. 37(0)]; supracondylar fossa of exoccipital reduced and located dorsomedial to condyle, or lost [c. 67(3)]; palatines not extending anteriorly beyond poste- rior edge of zygomatic-orbital bridge [c. 99(1)]; tusks large [c. 140(2)]. M. subapenninum differs from M. serresii, its presumed immediate ancestor, in having dorsally broadened nasal process of premaxilla, very large infraorbital foramen [c. 13(2)], and large tusks [c. 140(2)]. M. subapenninum is provisionally defined as the terminal chronospecies (possibly spanning up to 2.7 Ma) of the Euro-North African Metaxytherium lineage, until such time as better evidence shows that evolution in tusk morphology within this species justifies recognition of its latest members as a distinct chronospecies (“M. gastaldi”).