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Vulpes (fox)

Mammalia - Carnivora - Canidae

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1758Canis alopex Linnaeus p. 40
1775Vulpes Frisch
1935Vulpes Schultz and Howard p. 284
1968Vulpes Kurten p. 114
1980Vulpes Kurten and Anderson p. 173
1981Vulpes Hall
1988Vulpes Carroll
1989Vulpes Wozencraft
1993Vulpes Wilson and Reeder
1997Vulpes Geraads p. 151
2009Vulpes Tedford et al. p. 47
2010Vulpes Werdelin and Peigne p. 618
2015Vulpes Geraads et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
RankNameAuthor
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
Laurasiatheria
Scrotifera
Ferae()
CarnivoramorphaWyss and Flynn 1993
CarnivoraformesFlynn et al.
orderCarnivoraBowditch 1821
suborderCaniformiaKretzoi 1943
superfamilyCanoideaSimpson 1931
familyCanidaeFischer 1817
genusVulpesFrisch 1775

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
R. H. Tedford et al. 2009Vulpes differs from Leptocyon in the following features that constitute synapomorphies with all higher Caninae: medial cusplet on I3 absent; zygo- ma strongly arched in lateral view; metatarsal I reduced to proximal rudiment; humerus lacks entepicondylar foramen. Vulpes shares three synapomorphies with other Vulpini: broad paroccipital process; M1 parastyle very weak and separated from preparacrista; and symplesiomorphic presence of M2 meta- conule and associated postprotocrista. Short nasals that rarely extend to level of most posterior position of maxillary-frontal suture is autapomorphic (this feature appears as a homoplasy in a number of Canis species).