Basic info Taxonomic history Classification Relationships
Morphology Ecology and taphonomy External Literature Search Age range and collections

Cystophora cristata (hooded seal)

Mammalia - Carnivora - Phocidae

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1777Phoca cristata Erxleben
1779Phoca cristata Erxleben p. 590
1820Cystophora borealis Nilsson
1847Cystophora cristata Nilsson p. 299
1850Cystophora cristata Gray p. 36
1866Cystophora cristata Gill p. 6
1866Cystophora cristata Gray p. 41
1880Cystophora cristata Allen p. 724
1898Cystophora cristata Trouessart p. 378
1902Cystophora cristata Hay p. 785
1904Cystophora cristata Trouessart p. 282
1912Cystophora cristata Turner p. 193
1930Cystophora cristata Hay p. 561
1947Cystophora cristata Friant p. 5
1952Cystophora cristata Sherman p. 90
1963Cystophora cristata Scheffer and Rice p. 4
1980Cystophora cristata Kurten and Anderson p. 207
1986Cystophora cristata Kovacs and Lavigne p. 1
1990Cystophora cristata Riedman p. 57 figs. Table 2
2001Cystophora cristata Koretsky p. 87
2003Cystophora cristata Deméré et al. p. 49 figs. Fig. 3.3
2004Cystophora cristata Davis et al. p. 365
2014Cystophora cristata Cullen et al. p. 1471 figs. Figure 1
2018Cystophora cristata Berta et al. p. 210 figs. Fig. 2

Is something missing? Join the Paleobiology Database and enter the data

RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
RankNameAuthor
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
Placentalia
Laurasiatheria
Scrotifera
Ferae()
CarnivoramorphaWyss and Flynn 1993
CarnivoraformesFlynn et al.
orderCarnivoraBowditch 1821
superfamilyArctoideaFlower 1869
Pinnipedimorpha
Pinnipedia()
familyPhocidae
subfamilyPhocinae
genusCystophoraNilsson 1820
speciescristata(Erxleben 1779)

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
K. M. Kovacs and D. M. Lavigne 1986Cystophora is distinguished from most other
phocid seals by its incisor formula (2/1), the possession of an inflatable
proboscis (Fig. la), and the general shape and appearance
of the postcanine teeth (King, 1966). In all these characteristics it
resembles Mirounga. However, the structure and mechanism of
inflation of the proboscis of these two seals is different (Allen, 1880;
Berland, 1958, 1966; Gray, 1866; Merriam, 1884). In addition to
the inflatable hood (Fig. lb), male Cystophora possess the unique
ability to blow from one nostril, usually the left, a red, balloonshaped,
nasal septum (Fig. lc, d).
Diagnostic skull characteristics (Figs. 2 and 3), associated primarily
with the inflatable nasal appendage, are described from King
(1972): the cranium is short with a long, wide snout; the interorbital
area is toward the back of the skull; the dorsal junction of the
maxilla and jugal projects laterally and forms a shoulder rather than
a smooth outline; the orbit proper occurs anterior to the jugal;
frontonasal area is elevated; nasal openings are wider than in any
other phocid; premaxillae, which have a distinct dorsal ridge, do
not meet the nasals; the narial basin is "key-hole shaped"; nasals
project beyond the anterior edge of the maxilla by about a third of
their length; the maxilla is reduced between the preorbital process
and the rear edge of the narial basin; the palate is elongate posteriorly,
more so than other phocids; the hamular process of the
pterygoid is closer to the anterior border of the tympanic bulla than
to the front edge of the zygomatic arch; mastoid region is visible
on the dorsal aspect of the skull; ventrally the petrosal is visible
projecting into the foramen lacerum posterius.