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Stylemys nebrascensis

Reptilia - Testudines - Testudinidae

Taxonomy
Stylemys nebrascensis was named by Leidy (1851). Its type specimen is USNM 97, a partial shell, and it is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is White River Badlands (coll. D.D. Owen, USNM, St. nebrascensis type locality), which is in a Rupelian terrestrial horizon in the Orellan Formation of South Dakota. It is the type species of Testudo (Stylemys).

It was recombined as Testudo nebrascensis by Leidy (1851), Leidy (1852), Leidy (1853), Leidy (1857) and Leidy (1873).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1851Stylemys nebrascensis Leidy
1851Emys hemispherica Leidy p. 173
1851Stylemys nebrascensis Leidy p. 173
1851Testudo lata Leidy p. 173
1851Testudo nebrascensis Leidy p. 173
1851Emys oweni Leidy pp. 327-328
1852Testudo culbertsonii Leidy
1852Testudo hemispherica Leidy
1852Testudo nebrascensis Leidy
1852Testudo oweni Leidy
1852Emys culbertsonii Leidy p. 34
1853Testudo culbertsonii Leidy
1853Testudo hemispherica Leidy
1853Testudo lata Leidy
1853Testudo nebrascensis Leidy
1853Testudo oweni Leidy
1857Testudo nebrascensis Leidy p. 90
1873Testudo amphithorax Cope
1873Testudo ligonius Cope
1873Testudo amphithorax Cope p. 19
1873Testudo ligonius Cope p. 19
1873Testudo nebrascensis Leidy
1884Stylemys nebrascensis Cope
1889Stylemys nebrascensis Lydekker p. 94
1891Stylemys nebrascensis Cope p. 5
1902Stylemys nebrascensis Hay
1902Testudo amphithorax Hay
1902Testudo ligonia Hay
1908Stylemys nebrascensis Hay
1908Testudo emiliae Hay p. 419
1908Stylemys nebrascensis Lambe
1913Stylemys nebrascensis Lambe
1925Stylemys nebrascensis Case p. 87
1936Stylemys nebrascensis Case p. 87
1950Testudo (Hesperotestudo) ligonia Williams p. 25
1953Testudo (Hesperotestudo) amphithorax Williams p. 544
1961Gopherus neglectus Brattstrom p. 544
1963Geochelone (Hesperotestudo) amphithorax Auffenberg p. 87
1963Geochelone (Caudochelys) ligonia Auffenberg p. 93
1963Gopherus emiliae Auffenberg p. 94
1964Stylemys amphithorax Auffenberg p. 323
1964Stylemys nebrascensis Auffenberg p. 323
1982Stylemys emiliae Bramble p. 854
1982Stylemys neglectus Bramble p. 854
1996Stylemys amphithorax Hutchison p. 346
1996Stylemys nebrascensis Hutchison p. 347
1998Stylemys nebrascensis Wall and Maddox p. 11
2018Stylemys nebrascensis Vlachos

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
RankNameAuthor
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
Testudinata(Oppel 1811)
orderTestudinesBatsch 1788
suborderCryptodira
Pantestudinoidea
superfamilyTestudinoidea
Pantestudinidae
familyTestudinidaeBatsch 1788
genusStylemys
speciesnebrascensis

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
J. Leidy 1852 (Testudo culbertsonii)Dr. Leidy stated that he had been studying the characters of the fossil tortoises from Nebraska Territory, and had come to the conclusion that they had been terrestrialandnotaquaticintheirhabits,andbelongedtothegenusTestudo. Inall, the penultimate vertebral plate is inverted V formed,enclosing with the pygal plate the last vertebral plate; the costal plates are alternately broad and narrow; and in those specimens in which the marks of the pygal scute remains, it is undivided, as in the recent Testudo.
J. Leidy 1852 (Testudo oweni)Dr. Leidy stated that he had been studying the characters of the fossil tortoises from Nebraska Territory, and had come to the conclusion that they had been terrestrialandnotaquaticintheirhabits,andbelongedtothegenusTestudo. Inall, the penultimate vertebral plate is inverted V formed,enclosing with the pygal plate the last vertebral plate; the costal plates are alternately broad and narrow; and in those specimens in which the marks of the pygal scute remains, it is undivided, as in the recent Testudo.
J. Leidy 1852Dr. Leidy stated that he had been studying the characters of the fossil tortoises from Nebraska Territory, and had come to the conclusion that they had been terrestrial and not aquatic in their habits,andbelongedtothegenusTestudo. In all, the penultimate vertebral plate is inverted V formed,enclosing with the pygal plate the last vertebral plate; the costal plates are alternately broad and narrow; and in those specimens in which the marks of the pygal scute remains, it is undivided, as in the recent Testudo.
J. Leidy 1852 (Testudo hemispherica)Dr. Leidy stated that he had been studying the characters of the fossil tortoises from Nebraska Territory, and had come to the conclusion that they had been terrestrialandnotaquaticintheirhabits,andbelongedtothegenusTestudo. Inall, the penultimate vertebral plate is inverted V formed,enclosing with the pygal plate the last vertebral plate; the costal plates are alternately broad and narrow; and in those specimens in which the marks of the pygal scute remains, it is undivided, as in the recent Testudo.
E. Vlachos 2018Stylemys nebrascensis can be diagnosed as a member of Stylemys based on the characters listed above. Stylemys nebrascensis can be differentiated from other Stylemys based on the presence of a premaxillae ridge with a corresponding dentary symphyseal groove, a neural pattern of 4>6A>6A>6A>6A>6A>6A>6A, weakly-developed epiplastral lip with absent or shallow epiplastral excavation, and a humero-pectoral sulcus that is situated posterior to the entoplastron and that is medially straight and anterolaterally convex.