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Crossvallia unienwillia

Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Spheniscidae

Taxonomy
Crossvallia unienwillia was named by Tambussi et al. (2005). Its type specimen is MLP 00-I-10-1, a set of postcrania (right humerus), and it is not a trace fossil. Its type locality is Cross Valley, which is in a Paleocene marginal marine mudstone in the Cross Valley Formation of Antarctica.

Synonymy list
YearName and author
2005Crossvallia unienwillia Tambussi et al.
2007Crossvallia unienwillia Chavez p. 554
2013Crossvallia unienwillia Jadwiszczak et al. p. 547

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
RankNameAuthor
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Saurischia()
Theropoda()
Neotheropoda
AverostraPaul 2002
Tetanurae
orderAvetheropoda
suborderCoelurosauria
Maniraptora
Paraves
classAves
orderSphenisciformesSharpe 1891
familySpheniscidaeBonaparte 1831
genusCrossvallia
speciesunienwillia

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
P. Jadwiszczak et al. 2013The following combination of characters is considered diagnostic for Crossvallia unienwillia. Humerus very large, clearly longer than its counterparts in Waimanu tu- atahi (Paleocene species), Perudyptes devriesi Clarke, Ksepka, Stucchi, Urbina, Giannini, Bertelli, Narváez and Boyd, 2007, Palaeeudyptes gunnari (Wiman, 1905) and Kaiika maxwelli Fordyce and Thomas, 2011 (Eocene taxa) (Fig. 7). Length to midshaft width ratio 7, i.e., bone more slender than humeri in Inkayacu paracasensis Clarke, Ksepka, Salas-Gismondi, Al- tamirano, Shawkey, D’Alba, Vinther, DeVries and Baby, 2010, Icadyptes salasi Clarke, Ksepka, Stucchi, Urbina, Giannini, Bertelli, Narváez and Boyd, 2007, Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi Wiman, 1905 and Pachydyptes ponderosus Oliver, 1930 (large- sized Eocene species, ratios below 6; Fig. 7). Tricipital fossa not bipartite (unlike in some small-sized Eocene Antarctic penguins; see Jadwiszczak, 2006b). Transverse ligamental furrow cranially as narrow shelf (broad shelf in K. maxwelli and P. devriesi)–due to relatively well pronounced ventral convexity of articular surface of humeral head (not marked in K. maxwelli). Insertion for m. supracoracoideus wide (narrow in K. maxwelli), not as elevated as that in W. tuatahi and its cranial margin oblique (unlike in W. tuatahi and K. maxwelli, I. paracasensis, I. salasi and P. gunnari). Conspicuous elongated pit located proximally to insertion for m. coracobrachialis cranialis (indicated by uppermost arrow on Figure 5.3; absent in K. maxwelli). Insertion for pectoral muscle (just distal to m. coracobrachialis cranialis) much wider than in W. tuatahi. Capsular groove situated more proximally relative to caudal portion of transverse groove than its counterparts in K. maxwelli, I. paracasensis and P. gunnari. Ulnar condyle not as ventral as in K. maxwelli. Ligamental pit on femoral head located medi- ally (proximally or medioproximally in large-sized penguins from the Eocene of Seymour Island [e.g., Figs. 6.3–6, 6.9], also in I. paracasensis [Clarke et al., 2010, fig. 1] and W. tu- atahi [Slack et al., 2006, fig. 1]).