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Platypterygius australis

Reptilia - Ophthalmosauridae

Taxonomy
Ichthyosaurus australis was named by McCoy (1867) [Original holotype lost, Neotype (MV P12989) designated by Zammit Original holotype lost, Neotype (MV P12989) designated by Zammit Original holotype lost, Neotype (MV P12989) designated by Zammit Original holotype lost, Neotype (MV P12989) designated by Zammit Original holotype lost, Neotype (MV P12989) designated by Zammit]. Its type specimen is MV P12989 and is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is Amuri Bluff, which is in a Campanian/Maastrichtian basinal (siliciclastic) sandstone in the Conway Formation of New Zealand.

It was recombined as Mixosaurus hectori by Lydekker (1889); it was considered a nomen dubium by Kear (2003); it was recombined as Platypterygius australis by McGowan (1972), Maisch (2010), Zammit (2010), Fischer et al. (2013) and Arkhangelsky and Zverkov (2014).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1867Ichthyosaurus australis McCoy
1874Ichthyosaurus australis Hector p. 355
1888Ichthyosaurus marathonensis Etheridge p. 408 figs. Pl. 1, figs. 1-3
1888Ichthyosaurus marathonensis Etheridge, Jr.
1889Mixosaurus hectori Lydekker p. 113
1922Myopterygius marathonensis Huene pp. 96, 98
1944Myopterygius australis Teichert and Matheson p. 169 figs. 1-3
1972Platypterygius australis McGowan p. 17 figs. Pls. 3, 4
1990Platypterygius longmani Wade
2003Platypterygius longmani Kear p. 284 figs. 2, 3A-C
2010Platypterygius australis Maisch
2010Platypterygius australis Zammit p. 7
2013Platypterygius australis Fischer et al.
2014Platypterygius australis Arkhangelsky and Zverkov

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
RankNameAuthor
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Ichthyosauromorpha
Ichthyosauriformes
Ichthyopterygia(Owen 1840)
Eoichthyosauria
Ichthyosauria(de Blainville 1835)
Hueneosauria
Merriamosauria
Euichthyosauria
Parvipelvia
NeoichthyosauriaSander 2000
Thunnosauria
Baracromia
familyOphthalmosauridaeAppleby 1956
subfamilyPlatypterygiinaeArkhangelsky 2001
genusPlatypterygiusvon Huene 1922
speciesaustralis()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
B. P. Kear 2003 (Platypterygius longmani)"The following diagnosis is modified from Wade (1990). With the features of the genus. External naris subdivided with well-developed anterior foramen and one or more foramina present (in nasal) posterodorsal to external bony nasal opening. Humerus (Fig. 2B, C) bearing tapering crest-like dorsal trochanter (Choo, 1999) and three distinct distal facets for articulation with the ulna, radius and an anterior zeugopodial element. Three preaxial accessory digits and three postaxial accessory digits present in forefin with digital bifurcation occurring in the primary axis (digit IV, Fig. 2D). Neural spines of at least neck and anterior trunk vertebra divided into anterior and posterior peaks by an asymmetric V-shaped apical notch. Caudal centra from tail stock region may bear weakly developed haemal arch facets (Kear, 2002a)."
M. Zammit 2010"Large ichthyosaur, around 7 m long. Maxilla with extensive external exposure; forms the entire ventral portion of both the anterior maxillary foramen and the bony nasal aperture. Maxilla also has a minor internal contact with the prefrontal via its posterodorsal surface. Lacrimal does not contribute to the border of the bony nasal aperture. Prefrontal with minor internal contribution to the bony nasal aperture. External naris subdivided with well-developed anterior foramen and one or more foramina present (in nasal) posterodorsal to external bony nasal opening. Parietal contributes to the facet for the paroccipital process of the opisthotic on the supratemporal. Humerus bearing tapered crest-like dorsal trochanter and three distinct distal facets for articulation with the ulna, radius and an anterior zeugopodial element. Fourth distal facet sporadically present on humerus for articulation with pisiform. Three preaxial accessory digits and three postaxial accessory digits present in forelimb with digital bifurcation occurring in the primary axis (digit IV). Neural spines of at least neck and anterior trunk vertebrae divided into anterior and posterior peaks by an asymmetric V-shaped apical notch. Caudal centra from tail stock region may bear weakly developed hemal arch facets."