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Opisthobranchia

Gastropoda - Opisthobranchia

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1848Opisthobranchia Milne-Edwards
1904Opisthobranchiata Martin p. 131
1960Opisthobranchia Knight et al. p. 321
1989Opisthobranchia Squires p. 444
1998Opisthobranchia Beesley p. 915
1999Opisthobranchia Squires p. 22
2001Opisthobranchia Squires and Saul p. 59
2002Opisthobranchia Sepkoski
2007Opisthobranchia Harzhauser p. 112

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Protostomia
Spiralia
RankNameAuthor
superphylumLophotrochozoa
phylumMollusca
classGastropoda
orderOpisthobranchia(Milne-Edwards 1848)
orderOpisthobranchia(Milne-Edwards 1848)

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Or. †Opisthobranchia Milne-Edwards 1848
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G. †Acanthotrophia Conti and Fischer 1984
Or. Acochlidea Odhner 1939
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Superfm. †Acochlidioidea Odhner 1937
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Invalid names: Acochlidiidae Odhner 1937 [empty], Hedylopsidae Odhner 1952 [empty]
Superfm. †Microhedyloidea Odhner 1937
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Invalid names: Asperspinidae Rankin 1979 [empty], Microhedylidae Odhner 1937 [empty]
G. †Canepina Conti and Fischer 1981
Or. Cephalaspida Fischer 1883
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G. †Acrocolpus Cossmann 1895
G. †Actaeonellina Pchelintsev 1963
G. †Actaeonidea Gabb 1872
G. †Adamnestia Iredale 1936
G. †Blancia Bourguignat 1875
G. Bucconia Dall 1890
G. †Bulimactaeon Cossmann 1891
G. †Ceritella Morris and Lycett 1851
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Subg. †Ceritella (Ceritellopsis) Fischer 1961
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Ceritellopsis huckriedei Gründel and Kaim 2006
Ceritella andriacensis Fischer 1964
Ceritella apenninica Fischer et al. 2002
G. †Coeloscapha MacNeil in MacNeil & Dockery 1984
G. †Cosmophiline Berger 1949
G. Cylichnatys Kuroda & Habe 1952
G. †Cylindritella White 1887
G. †Douvilleia Parnes 1988
G. †Eotrochactaeon Akopyan 1972
G. †Fictoacteon Stephenson 1952
G. †Globiconcha d'Orbigny 1843
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Globiconcha remondii Gabb 1864
G. †Hacobjania Aliev & Lysenko 1986
G. †Hamlinia Boehm 1900
G. Hermania Monterosato 1884
G. †Kaitoa Marwick 1931
G. Kleinacteon Vokes 1939
G. Liloa Pilsbry 1921
G. Limulatys Iredale 1936
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Limulatys muscarius Gould 1859
G. †Maoriscaphander Dell 1950
G. †Mesotrochactaeon Akopyan 1972
G. †Mexicotrochactaeon Akopyan 1972
G. †Mnestocylichnella Oppenheim 1896
G. †Moniliretusa Sohl 1963
G. †Noetca Stewart 1926
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Noetca gabbi Stewart 1927
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Invalid names: Cylindrites brevis Gabb 1864 [replaced]
G. †Nucleopsis Conrad 1865
G. †Orthoptyxis Yang & Wang 1985
G. Ossiania Monterosato 1884
G. Ovulactaeon Dall 1889
G. †Ovulopsis Moericke 1895
G. †Palaeohydatina Cossmann 1895
G. †Palaeotrochactaeon Akopyan 1972
G. †Pchelincevella Dzhalilov 1972
G. †Peruviella Olsson 1944
G. †Plicobulla Cossmann 1895
G. †Priscaphander Finlay & Marwick 1937
G. †Pseudavena Sacco 1897
G. Pyrunculus Pilsbry 1895
G. †Raincourtia Fischer 1884
G. †Ringiculoptycha Kropaczek in Studencka 1986
G. †Ringiculospongia Bellardi & Sacco 1892
G. Roxaniella Crosse 1885
G. †Sevanella Akopyan 1972
G. †Sogdianella Dzhalilov 1972
G. †Spiractaeon Meek 1863
G. †Superstes Finlay & Marwick 1937
G. †Talahabia Martin 1921
G. †Trochactaeonina Meek 1863
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Invalid names: Ateleaspidae Traquair 1899 [empty]
Or. Cephalaspidea Fischer 1883
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Superfm. †Bulloidea Lamarck 1801
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Fm. Bullidae Lamarck 1801
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G. Bulla Linnaeus 1758
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Subg. Bulla (Bulla) Linnaeus 1758
Subg. †Bulla (Tornatina) Adams 1850
Bulla ampulla Linnaeaus 1758
Bulla arenasia Ihering 1907
Bulla argosensis Harzhauser 2007
Bulla assimilata Cooper 1894
Bulla cantuaensis Anderson and Martin 1914
Bulla clathrata Defrance 1817
Bulla coclis Ponzi 1876
Bulla conica Deshayes 1824
Bulla conulus Deshayes 1824
Bulla coronata Lamarck 1804
Bulla crassiplica Conrad 1848
Bulla cylindrica Bruguière 1792
Bulla cylindroides Deshayes 1824
Bulla globulus Deshayes 1824
Bulla gouldiana Pilsbry 1895
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Invalid names: Bulla nebulosa Adams 1850 [synonym]
Bulla infundibulum Ponzi 1876
Bulla laevis Defrance 1817
Bulla lignaria Linnaeus 1758
Bulla macfadyeni Cox 1935
Bulla minuta Deshayes 1824
Bulla ovulata Lamarck 1804
Bulla plicata Deshayes 1824
Bulla punctulata Adams 1850
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Invalid names: Bulla adamsi Menke 1850 [synonym], Bulla aspera Adams 1850 [synonym], Bulla panamensis Philippi 1849 [replaced], Bulla quoyana Dall 1919 [synonym]
Bulla reussi Martin 1879
Bulla semistriata Deshayes 1824
Bulla stampinensis Cossmann 1879
Bulla striata Bruguiére 1792
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Invalid names: Bullaria occidentalis Adams 1850 [synonym]
Bulla striatella Lamarck 1804
Bulla subampulla d'Orbigny 1852
Bulla vernicosa Gould 1859
Bulla verrucosa Linnaeus 1758
Bulla volva Linnaeus 1758
G. †Bullinella Newton
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Bullinella convoluta Brocchi 1800
Bullinella jacksonensis Harris 1894
G. †Bullopsis Conrad 1858
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Bullopsis cretacea Conrad 1858
Bullopsis demersus Sohl 1964
Superfm. †Cylindrobulloidea Thiele 1931
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Invalid names: Cylindrobullidae Thiele 1926 [empty]
Superfm. †Haminoeoidea Pilsbry 1895
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Fm. Haminoeidae Pilsbry 1895
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Subfm. Atydinae Thiele 1925
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G. Aliculastrum Pilsbry 1896
G. Atys Montfort 1810
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Subg. Atys (Atys) Montfort 1810
Subg. Atys (Weinkauffia) Adams 1858
Atys aedemata Dall 1895
Atys cylindricus Helbling 1779
Atys doliolum Maury 1917
Atys hyalina Watson 1886
Atys multistriatus Schepman 1913
Atys naucum Linnaeus 1758
Atys obscuratus Dall 1896
G. Haminoea Turton and Kingston 1830
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Subg. Haminaea (Haminaea) Turton and Kingston 1930
Haminea grandis Aldrich 1886
Haminea postangulata Clark and Woodford 1927
Haminoea crocata Pease 1860
Haminoea vesicula Gould 1855
Haminoea virescens Sowerby 1833
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Invalid names: Haminoea dalli Bartsch in Oldroyd 1925 [synonym]
G. Roxania Leach In Gray 1847
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Subg. Roxania (Roxania) Leach In Gray 1847
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Sabatia callifera Boettger 1906
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Invalid names: Bulla utriculus Hörnes 1814 [synonym]
Roxania chipolana Dall 1895
Roxania mediolaevigata Traub 1938
Roxania modesta Traub 1938
Roxania ventricosa Traub 1938
Invalid names: Atydidae Thiele 1929 [empty], Bullactidae Thiele 1926 [empty], Smaragdinellidae Adams 1848 [empty]
Superfm. Philinoidea Gray 1850
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Fm. Cylichnidae Adams 1850
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G. †Abderospira Dall 1896
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Abderospira aldrichi Langdon 1886
Abderospira hornii Gabb 1864
Abderospira leblanci Harris and Palmer 1947
Abderospira meyeri Palmer 1937
Abderospira oviformis Meyer 1886
Abderospira sabina Palmer 1937
Abderospira stewarti Palmer 1937
G. Acteocina Gray 1847 [barrel-bubble]
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Acteocina anetaspira Woodring 1928
Acteocina bidentata d'Orbigny 1841
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Invalid names: Cylichnella mareana Weisbord 1962 [synonym]
Acteocina bullata Kiener 1834
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Invalid names: Acteocina subbullata Pilsbry and Johnson 1917 [synonym]
Acteocina candei d'Orbigny 1841
Acteocina cederstromi Richards 1947
Acteocina cerealis Gould 1853
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Invalid names: Tornatina eximia Baird 1863 [synonym]
Acteocina chowanensis Richards 1947
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Invalid names: Acteocina pedroensis Oldroyd 1925 [synonym]
Acteocina harpa Dall 1871
Acteocina inculta Gould 1855
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Invalid names: Acteocina smirna Dall 1919 [synonym], Coelophysis carinata Carpenter 1857 [synonym]
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Invalid names: Acteocina anomala Willett 1945 [synonym], Acteocina magdalenensis Dall 1919 [synonym], Tornatina tumida Olrdoyd 1921 [synonym]
Acteocina kirkwoodiana Richards and Harbison 1944
Acteocina lajonkaireana Basterot 1825
Acteocina lepta Woodring 1928
Acteocina puruha Pilsbry and Olsson 1941
Acteocina recta d'Orbigny 1845
Acteocina sandwicensis Pease 1860
G. Bullaria Rafinesque 1815
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Bullaria granosa Sowerby 1849
Bullaria jolla Hanna 1927
Bullaria paupercula Sowerby 1849
Bullaria tumida Packard 1922
G. †Bullichna Nordsieck 1972
G. Cylichna Lovén 1846
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Subg. Cylichna (Acrostemma) Cossmann 1889
Subg. Cylichna (Cylichna) Lovén 1846
Subg. †Cylichna (Cylichnopsis) Cossmann 1904
Cylichna alba Brown 1827
Cylichna andersoni Murphy and Rodda 1960
Cylichna angustata Cossman and Cossman 1897
Cylichna angystoma Deshayes 1824
Cylichna attonsa Carpenter 1864
Cylichna aula Woodring 1928
Cylichna calvertensis Martin 1904
Cylichna discus Watson 1883
Cylichna elliptica Sowerby 1824
Cylichna faba Kner 1869
Cylichna fantasma Baker and Hanna 1927
Cylichna greensboroensis Martin 1904
Cylichna incisa Stephenson 1941
Cylichna intermissia Sohl 1964
Cylichna jacksonensis Meyer 1886
Cylichna loismartinae Keen 1943
Cylichna makanjuolai Adegoke 1977
Cylichna occulta Mighels and Adams 1842
Cylichna paupercula Nagao 1928
Cylichna pessumata Sohl 1964
Cylichna ramonensis Clark 1918
Cylichna salbriacensis Peyrot 1932
Cylichna secalina Shumard 1861
Cylichna solivaga Maury 1912
Cylichna subalpina Guembel 1861
Cylichna temblorensis Keen 1943
Cylichna tenuis Reuss 1845
Cylichna venusta Clark 1895
G. †Cylichnania Marwick 1931
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Cylichnania impar Finlay and Marwick 1937
G. Cylichnella Gabb 1873
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Cylichnella atacata Woodring 1928
Cylichnella bitruncata Meyer 1886
Cylichnella duqmensis Harzhauser 2007
Cylichnella stibara Woodring 1970
G. Philine Ascanius 1772
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Philine aquila Van Der Linden and Janssen 1996
G. Scaphander Monfort 1810
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Subg. †Scaphander (Mirascapha) Stewart 1927
Subg. †Scaphander (Scaphander) Montfort 1810
Scaphander brevicula Philippi 1887
Scaphander impunctatus Hickman 1980
Scaphander jacksonensis Harris and Palmer 1947
Scaphander javanus Martin 1879
Scaphander jugularis Conrad 1855
Scaphander nannus Woodring 1928
Scaphander polysarcus Cossmann and Pissarro 1913
Scaphander radii Abbass 1967
Scaphander rarus Wade 1926
Scaphander remondi Philippi 1887
Scaphander stewarti Durham 1944
G. †Suwannescapha Petuch 1997
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Suwannescapha lindae Petuch 1997
G. †Taita Laws 1948
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Taita callosa Laws 1948
Taita lawsi Maxwell 1988
Fm. †Philinidae Gray 1850
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G. †Megistostoma Gabb 1864
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Megistostoma gabbianum Stoliczka 1868
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Invalid names: Megistostoma caminoensis Hanna 1927 [synonym], Megistostoma striata Gabb 1864 [replaced]
Fm. Retusidae Thiele 1925
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G. Retusa Brown 1827
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Subg. Retusa (Coleophysis) Fischer 1883
Subg. Retusa (Cylichnina) Monterasato 1884
Retusa bizona Adams 1850
Retusa claibornensis Aldrich 1911
Retusa obtusa Montagu 1808
Retusa recta Eames 1952
Retusa truncatula Bruguiere 1792
Retusa yaquensis Maury 1917
G. Rhizorus Montfort 1810
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Rhizorus pakistanicus Eames 1952
G. Sulcoretusa Burch 1945
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Subg. †Sulcoretusa (Moniloretusa) Sohl 1963
Sulcoretusa israelskyi Addicott 1970
Sulcoretusa sulcata d'Orbigny 1841
G. Volvulella Newton 1891
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Subg. Volvulella (Volvulella) Newton 1891
Volvulella cannada Ihering 1907
Volvulella cylindrica Carpenter 1865
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Invalid names: Volvulella cooperi Dall 1919 [synonym]
Volvulella gluma Keen 1943
Volvulella joaquinensis Addicott 1970
Volvulella meyer Cossman 1893
Volvulella oxyacrum Cossmann 1889
Fm. Scaphandridae Sars 1878
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G. †Ellipsoscapha Stephenson 1941
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Ellipsoscapha cylindrica Gardner 1916
Ellipsoscapha mortoni Forbes 1845
Ellipsoscapha nortonensis Anderson 1958
Ellipsoscapha sohli Marincovich, Jr. 1993
Ellipsoscapha striatella Shumard 1861
G. †Micromelo Pilsbry 1895
G. Mnestia Adams and A. 1854
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Mnestia meyeri Cossmann 1893
Mnestia turgidula Sandberger 1859
Invalid names: Aglajidae Pilsbry 1895 [empty], Gastropteridae Swainson 1840 [empty], Philinacea [objective synonym], Philinoglossidae Hertling 1932 [empty]
Superfm. †Runcinoidea Adams and A. 1854
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Invalid names: Ilbiidae Burn 1963 [empty], Runcinidae Adams and A. 1854 [empty]
Invalid names: Acteonoida d'Orbigny 1842 [empty], Cylichnoidea Adams 1850 [empty], Notodiaphanidae Thiele 1931 [empty], Ringiculoidea Philippi 1853 [empty]
G. †Floribella Woodring 1970
Or. Gymnosomata Blainville 1824 [sea angel]
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Subor. †Gymnoptera
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Invalid names: Hydromylidae Pruvot-Fol 1942 [empty]
G. †Heteroptygmatis Shikama and Yui 1973
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G. †Acrostylus Cossmann 1896
G. †Ampezzogyra Bandel 1996
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Ampezzogyra angulata Nützel and Hausmann 2021
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Aphanotaenia strigillata Credner 1863
G. Auristomia Monterosato 1884
G. Babella Dall & Bartsch 1906
G. †Bactroptyxis Cossmann 1896
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Bactroptyxis cossmanni Fischer 1962
G. †Boehmiola
G. †Brouzetia
G. †Campichia
G. †Coemansia
G. †Costaella
G. †Crimella
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Cryptoplocus picteti Gemmellaro 1864
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Invalid names: Trochalia picteti Gemmellaro 1897 [synonym]
G. †Curetia
G. †Eustomia
G. †Falsostyliola Colom 1986
G. †Fibulella
+
Fibuloptyxis excavata Fischer 1964
G. †Gemmellaroia Lyssenko 1990
G. †Gonzagia
G. †Itruvia
G. †Mrhilaia
+
Mrhilaia nerinaeformis Coquand 1862
G. †Neoptyxis
G. †Ptygmatis
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Ptygmatis carpathica Zeuschner 1849
Ptygmatis pseudobruntrutana Gemmellaro 1865
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Invalid names: Nerinea bruntrutana Ooster 1869 [synonym]
G. †Raulinia
G. †Rugiferia
G. †Sequania
G. †Spirocyclina Kittl 1894
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Spirocyclina eucycla Laube 1869
G. †Trochalia
G. †Ulfa
G. †Upella
G. †Lutima
G. †Mariottia
G. Mistostigma Berry 1947
+
Mistostigma punctulum Berry 1947
G. †Nicosiaella Conti and Fischer 1981
Or. Notaspidea Fischer 1883
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Superfm. †Pleurobranchoidea Férussac 1822
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Fm. †Pleurobranchidae Férussac 1822
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G. †Berthella Blainville 1824
G. Pleurobranchus Cuvier 1804
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Invalid names: Isselia Semper 1874 [synonym]
Superfm. †Tylodinoidea Gray 1847
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Fm. †Tylodinidae Gray 1847
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G. Tylodina Rafinesque 1819
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Tylodina fungina Gabb 1865
Fm. Umbraculidae Dall 1889
+
G. †Spiricella Rang 1828
+
Spiricella unguiculus Rang and Des Moulins 1828
G. Umbraculum Schumacher 1817
+
Umbraculum planulata Conrad 1856
G. †Paronaella Conti and Fischer 1984
G. †Pseudofusia Shuto 1969
G. †Reticulacella Dockery 1977
Or. Rhodopemorpha Salvini-Pläwen 1991
+
Fm. †Rhodopidae Kolliker 1847
+
Invalid names: Ganatidae Rankin 1979 [empty]
+
Fm. †Akeridae Mazzarelli 1891
+
G. Akera Muller 1776
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Akera bolivarensis Anderson 1928
Akera constricta Stephenson 1941
Akera gregoryi Newton 1917
Akera maga Vokes 1939
Akera narica Vredenburg 1925
Akera pseudodesioi Eames 1952
Akera texana Aldrich 1911
Invalid names: Tornatinidae [empty]
Or. Thecosomata Blainville 1823
+
G. †Bovicornu
+
Bovicornu gracile Meyer 1886
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Camptoceratops priscus Godwin-Austen 1882
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Invalid names: Camptoceratops americanus Garvie 1992 [synonym]
Fm. Cavoliniidae d'Orbigny 1842
+
G. †Balantium Bellardi 1872
+
Subg. †Balantium (Flabellulum) Bellardi 1873
Balantium collina Janssen and Zorn 2001
G. Cavolinia Avilgaard 1791
+
Cavolina pycna Jung 1971
Cavolina regulae Jung 1971
Cavolina telemus Linnaeus 1758
Cavolina tuomeyi Holmes 1858
Cavolinia aquensis Grateloup 1827
Cavolinia bituminata Beets 1953
Cavolinia grandis Bellardi 1873
+
Invalid names: Cavolinia rattonei Simonelli 1896 [synonym]
Cavolinia gypsorum Bellardi 1873
Cavolinia marginata Bronn 1962
+
Invalid names: Cavolina limatula Beets 1943 [synonym], Cavolinia vendryesiana Ujihara 1996 [synonym], Hyala marginata Bronn 1964 [synonym]
Cavolinia mexicana Collins 1934
+
Invalid names: Cavolinia globulosa Rang 1934 [synonym]
Cavolinia tridentata Niebuhr 1775
Cavolinia uncinata dOrbigny 1835
Cavolinia ventricosa Guppy 1882
Subfm. Cavoliniinae van der Spoel 1967
+
G. Clio Linnaeus 1767
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Subg. †Clio (Balantium) Children 1823
Subg. †Clio (Bellardiclio) Janssen 2004
+
+
Invalid names: Balantium braidense Bellardi 1878 [synonym], Cleodora braidense Bellardi 1905 [synonym], Clio braidense Bellardi 1897 [synonym]
Subg. †Clio (Clio) Linnaeus 1767
+
Clio (Clio) pyramidata Linnaeus 1767
Clio berglundi Squires 1989
Clio cuspidata Bosc 1802
Clio goederti Squires 1989
Clio kendacensis Jung 1971
Clio ortheziana Benoist 1889
Clio simplex Meyer 1886
Subfm. †Clioinae
+
G. Hyalocylis Fol 1875
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Hyalocylis striata Rang 1828
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Invalid names: Clio striata Rang 1867 [synonym]
G. Creseis Rang 1828
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Creseis acicula Renz 1829
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Invalid names: Clio acicula Yamakawa and Ishikawa 1912 [synonym], Hyalaea aciculata Orbigny 1878 [synonym]
Creseis kishimaensis Ando 2011
Creseis roesti Cahuzac and Janssen 2010
Creseis simplex Meyer 1886
Creseis spina Reuss 1867
+
Invalid names: Styliola hastata Meyer 1886 [synonym]
G. Cuvierina Boas 1886
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Subg. †Cuvierina (Urceolarica) Janssen 2006
+
+
Invalid names: Trypetera columnella Bronn 1862 [synonym]
Cuvierina astesana Rang 1829
Cuvierina columnella Rang 1827
Cuvierina paronai Checchia-Rispoli 1921
Invalid names: Cuvieria Rang 1827 [replaced]
Subfm. Cuvierininae van der Spoel 1967
+
+
Bowdenatheca jamaicensis Collins 1934
G. Diacria Gray 1847
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Diacria digitata Guppy 1882
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Invalid names: Cavolinia digitata Guppy 1903 [synonym]
Diacria mbaensis Ladd 1934
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Invalid names: Clio asphaltodes Beets 1943 [synonym], Diacria kipasiformis Beets 1943 [synonym]
Diacria trispinosa de Blainville 1821
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Invalid names: Diacria bisulcata Gabb 1873 [synonym]
G. †Diacrolinia Janssen 1995
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Diacrolinia aquensis Grateloup 1827
+
Invalid names: Hyalaea perovalis Koenen 1882 [synonym]
Diacrolinia aurita Bellardi 1873
G. †Edithinella Janssen 1995
+
Edithinella undulata Gabb 1873
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Invalid names: Vaginella undulata Gabb 1873 [synonym]
Edithinella varanica Sirna 1968
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Praehyalocylis cretacea Blanckenhorn 1889
G. Styliola Gray 1850
+
Styliola subula Quoy and Gaimard 1827
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Invalid names: Creseis spinifera Rang 1828 [synonym], Styliola sulcifera Gabb 1873 [synonym]
G. †Triptera Quoy and Gaimard 1835
+
Triptera clavata Gabb 1866
G. †Vaginella Daudin 1800
+
Vaginella acicula Renz 1829
Vaginella chipolana Dall 1892
Vaginella chipolana Dall 1892
Vaginella depressa Daudin 1800
Vaginella eligmostoma Tate 1887
Vaginella floridana Collins 1934
Vaginella ovatoconica Ponzi 1876
Vaginella tricuspidata Zorn and Janssen 1993
+
Euchilotheca ganensis Curry 1982
G. †Falsostyliola Colom 1986
+
Gamopleura melitensis Janssen 1995
Fm. Limacinidae Blainville 1823
+
+
+
Invalid names: Spiratella tutelina Curry 1986 [synonym]
G. †Currylimacina Janssen 2003
+
G. †Embolus Jeffreys 1869
G. †Heliconoides Orbigny 1835
+
+
Invalid names: Limacina texana Garvie and Hodgkinson 1992 [synonym]
Heliconoides daguini Cahuzac and Janssen 2010
Heliconoides hospes Rolle 1861
Heliconoides inflata Orbigny 1836
+
Invalid names: Embolus rostralis Souleyet 1880 [synonym], Limacina inflata d'Orbigny 1836 [synonym], Spirialis tertiaria Tate 1887 [synonym]
Heliconoides linneensis Janssen 2008
Heliconoides merlei Cahuzac and Janssen 2010
Heliconoides mermuysi Cahuzac and Janssen 2010
Heliconoides nemoris Curry 1965
Heliconoides nitens Lea 1833
Heliconoides paula Curry 1982
Heliconoides pyrenaica Cahuzac and Janssen 2010
Heliconoides tertiaria Cahuzac and Janssen 2010
+
Invalid names: Limacina tertiaria Tate 1897 [synonym], Spiratella tertiaria Curry 1965 [synonym]
G. Limacina Bosc 1817
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Subg. †Limacina (Striolimacina) Janssen 1999
+
+
Invalid names: Limacina elevata Collins 1934 [synonym]
Limacina bulimoides Orbigny 1836
Limacina conica Koenen 1892
Limacina gormani Curry 1982
Limacina karasawai Ando 2011
Limacina mercinensis Watelet and Lefevre 1885
Limacina pygmaea Lamarck 1804
+
Invalid names: Spirialis bernayi Laubrière 1881 [synonym], Spirialis parisiensis Watelet and Lefèvre 1885 [synonym], Spirialis pygmaea Lamarck 1885 [synonym]
Limacina trochiformis Orbigny 1836
Limacina valvatina Reuss 1867
+
Invalid names: Spiratella praerangi Tembrock 1989 [synonym]
Limacina vegrandis Cahuzac and Janssen 2010
Invalid names: Lornia Marwick 1926 [synonym]
G. †Pakistania Eames 1952
+
Pakistania antirotata Eames 1952
G. †Spirialis Eydoux and Souleyet 1840
G. †Lomia
G. †Tibiella
Invalid names: Cymbuliidae Gray 1840 [empty], Desmopteridae Chun 1889 [empty], Paraclididae Tesch 1913 [empty]
Or. Umbraculomorpha Schmekel 1985
+
G. †Eosinica
Invalid names: Cylindrobullinoidea Wenz 1947 [empty]
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: aragonitec
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: epifaunalc
Vision: limitedc
Created: 2004-02-29 11:40:59
Modified: 2010-02-11 01:35:02
Source: c = class
Reference: Kiessling 2004

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Kungurian to the top of the Holocene or 279.30000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 272.3 Ma

Collections (2075 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Kungurian279.3 - 272.3Malaysia (Perak) Spirocyclina sp. (62131)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0Italy Ampezzamilda aialensis (164191)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0Hungary (Bakony) Spirocyclina eucycla (203197 203199 203276)
Late/Upper Triassic237.0 - 201.3USA (Alaska) Spirocyclina sp. (112288)
Julian235.0 - 232.0Italy Ampezzogyra schroederi (38164) Spirocyclina eucycla (34692 69661 144632 144633) Turritella eucycla (144928)
Julian235.0 - 232.0Italy (Belluno) Ampezzogyra angulata (207475 207478)
Jurassic - Late/Upper Jurassic201.3 - 145.0Tunisia Palaeohydatina sp. (13812)
Sinemurian199.3 - 190.8Italy Ceritella apenninica (80016)
Middle Jurassic174.1 - 163.5United Kingdom (Gloucestershire) Ceritella morrisea (204059)
Late/Upper Bajocian - Early/Lower Bathonian171.6 - 164.7France (Occitanie) Ceritellopsis lycettea (58416)
Early/Lower Bajocian - Late/Upper Oxfordian171.6 - 155.7Romania (Brasov) Ceritella sp. (81442)
Bajocian170.3 - 168.3USA (Wyoming) Ceritella sp. (167064)
Bajocian - Early/Lower Bathonian170.3 - 164.7Saudi Arabia Akera sp. (45303)
Bathonian168.3 - 166.1Saudi Arabia Cylichna sp., Bactroptyxis sp., Nerinea bruntrutana (48447) Nerinea bruntrutana (48405)
Bathonian168.3 - 166.1United Kingdom (England) Ceritella sp. (36551 36555) Fibula phasianoides (36553 36554) Fibula phasianoides, Palaeohydatina sp., Endiaplocus roissyi (36552)
Early/Lower Bathonian167.7 - 164.7Iran Bactroptyxis bacillus (37563)
Late/Upper Bathonian167.7 - 164.7France Bactroptyxis sp. (174437)
Callovian166.1 - 163.5Saudi Arabia Akera sp. (45549) Cryptoplocus depressus, Nerinea bruntrutana (47915) Nerinea bruntrutana (47902 47912)
Callovian166.1 - 163.5Tanzania Akera tanganyicensis (36350)
Callovian166.1 - 163.5Germany Retusa microconcha (58203)