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Polycystina

Radiolaria -

Taxonomy
Polycystina was named by Ehrenberg (1867). It is extant.

It was corrected as Polycystida by Kozur et al. (1996); it was reranked as the superorder Polycystina by De Wever et al. (2001), Buckman and Aitchison (2001) and Takahashi and Miyake (2014).

It was assigned to Radiolaria by Kozur et al. (1996), De Wever et al. (2001), Buckman and Aitchison (2001), Feng et al. (2004), Maletz and Bruton (2008) and Takahashi and Miyake (2014).

Sister taxa
Albaillellaria, Archaeospicularia, Collodaria, Entactinaria, Latentifistularia, Nassellaria, Spumellaria

View classification of included taxa

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1867Polycystina Ehrenberg
1996Polycystida Kozur et al. p. 248
2001Polycystina Buckman and Aitchison p. 363
2001Polycystina De Wever et al. p. 107
2004Polycystina Feng et al. p. 379
2008Polycystina Maletz and Bruton p. 1186
2014Polycystina Takahashi and Miyake p. 278

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RankNameAuthor
Life
Eukaryota()
Rhizaria
phylumRetariaCavalier-Smith 1999
RankNameAuthor
classRadiolariaMüller 1858
superorderPolycystina(Ehrenberg 1867)
superorderPolycystina(Ehrenberg 1867)

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: silicac
Environment: marinec
Locomotion: passively mobilec
Life habit: planktonicc
Diet: omnivorec
Created: 2005-01-28 01:13:47
Modified: 2005-01-28 03:13:47
Source: c = class
Reference: Kiessling 1999

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Templetonian to the top of the Zanclean or 513.00000 to 3.60000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 507.0 Ma

Collections (2674 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Templetonian513.0 - 507.0Australia (Queensland) Palaeospiculum burkensis, Archeoentactinia angulata, Spongomassa nannosphaera, Palaeospiculum arcussimile, Palaeospiculum georginaensis, Palaeospiculum radiatum (90974)
Floran507.0 - 505.0Australia (Queensland) Archeoentactinia hexactinia, Archeoentactinia incaensis, Archeoentactinia tetractinia, Fungomacula sp. 1, Fungomacula barbatula, Spongomassa gigantea, Palaeospiculum arcussimile (90972) Archeoentactinia hexactinia, Archeoentactinia incaensis, Archeoentactinia tetractinia, Fungomacula sp. 1, Fungomacula sp. 3, Fungomacula barbatula, Spongomassa gigantea, Palaeospiculum arcussimile (90973)
Franconian501.0 - 485.4Canada (Newfoundland and Labrador) Echidnina sp., Palaeospiculum martinpointenis, Palaeospiculum grosmornensis, Protoentactinia gracilispinosa, Pararcheoentactinia reedae, Curvechidnina fusa, Curvechidnina kozuri, Curvechidnina longispinosa, Curvechidnina tetractina, Echidnina curvata, Echidnina irregularis, Echidnina stevensi, Subechidnina delicata, Subechidnina florea, Subechidnina gracilis, Subechidnina pressa, Palaeospiculum hexaradiatum, Parechidnina jamesi (90968) Echidnina sp., Palaeospiculum martinpointenis, Palaeospiculum grosmornensis, Protoentactinia gracilispinosa, Pararcheoentactinia reedae, Curvechidnina fusa, Curvechidnina kozuri, Curvechidnina tetractina, Echidnina irregularis, Echidnina stevensi, Subechidnina delicata, Subechidnina gracilis, Subechidnina pressa, Palaeospiculum greenpointensis, Palaeospiculum tetraradiatum, Parechidnina jamesi (90967) Echidnina sp., Palaeospiculum martinpointenis, Palaeospiculum grosmornensis, Protoentactinia gracilispinosa, Pararcheoentactinia reedae, Curvechidnina fusa, Curvechidnina longispinosa, Curvechidnina tetractina, Echidnina irregularis, Echidnina monactina, Subechidnina florea, Palaeospiculum greenpointensis, Palaeospiculum tetraradiatum, Parechidnina aspinosa, Parechidnina jamesi (90965) Pararcheoentactinia reedae, Curvechidnina longispinosa, Echidnina irregularis, Subechidnina florea, Palaeospiculum greenpointensis (90966)
Trempealeauan501.0 - 485.4Canada (Newfoundland and Labrador) Echidnina sp., Protoentactinia gracilispinosa, Pararcheoentactinia impedia, Pararcheoentactinia reedae, Echidnina conjuncta, Echidnina curvata, Palaeospiculum hexaradiatum, Palaeospiculum tetraradiatum, Ramuspiculum curvatum, Ramuspiculum multiramosum, Ramuspiculum trifurcatum, Parechidnina aspinosa, Parechidnina jamesi, Grosmorneus sp. A., Grosmorneus globosus (90971) Echidnina sp., Protoentactinia gracilispinosa, Pararcheoentactinia impedia, Pararcheoentactinia reedae, Echidnina irregularis (90970) Pararcheoentactinia reedae, Echidnina irregularis (90969)
Tremadoc485.4 - 477.7USA (Nevada) Protoentactinia sp. A, Protoentactinia sp. B, Protoentactinia sp. C, Protoentactinia gracilispinosa, Parechidnina nevadensis, Echidnina bengstoni, Protoentactinia latospinosa, Protoentactinia minuta, Noblella tremadociensis (90927)
Ordovician485.4 - 443.4Canada (Québec) Beatricea undulata (27236)
Moridunian478.6 - 471.8Kazakhstan Inanihella bakanasensis, Inanihella akzhala, Proventocitum procerulum (38015)
Llanvirn466.0 - 460.9Norway Inanigutta penrosei, Inanigutta sp. A, Inanigutta sp. B, Archaeospicularia indet., Protoentactinia sp., Inaniguttidae indet., Palaeospiculum sp., Sphaeroentactinia hexaspinosa, Haplentactinia armillata, Proventocitum procerulum, Antygopora sp., Antygopora irregularia, Inanigutta magnifica, Haplotaeniatum sp. (90922) Inanigutta penrosei, Inanigutta sp. B, Protoentactinia sp., Inaniguttidae indet., Sphaeroentactinia hexaspinosa, Haplentactinia armillata, Proventocitum procerulum, Antygopora sp., Antygopora irregularia, Haplotaeniatumidae indet., Haplotaeniatum sp. (90921)
Llandeilo466.0 - 449.5China (Xinjiang) Inaniguttidae indet., Protoceratoikiscum clarksoni (90914)
Llandeilo - Caradoc466.0 - 449.5Kazakhstan Entactinia dasysa, Entactinosphaera verrucula (37829)
Caradocian460.9 - 449.5USA (Nevada) Ceratoikiscum sp., Entactinia sublata, Entactinia spongia, Kalimnasphaera maculosa, Palaeotripus sexabrachiatus, Secuicollacta stelligera, Palaeosphaera micra, Palaeotrifidus ballator, Palaeotrifidus imbifurcus (13498)
Edenian - Richmondian460.9 - 443.7Canada (Northwest Territories) Beatricea undulata (27191)
Edenian - Richmondian460.9 - 443.7Canada (Québec) Beatricea undulata (27238)
Katian - Hirnantian453.0 - 443.4Russian Federation (Siberia) Kalimnasphaera maculosa, Secuicollacta ornata, Secuicollacta sceptri, Borisella subulata (205665)
Gamachian449.5 - 443.7Canada (Manitoba) Beatricea undulata (27130)
Richmondian449.5 - 443.7USA (Indiana) Beatricea undulata (101552)
Richmondian449.5 - 443.7USA (Michigan) Beatricea undulata (26317 75972 173082)
Richmondian449.5 - 443.7Canada (Manitoba) Beatricea undulata (27128)
Richmondian449.5 - 443.7USA (Ohio) Beatricea undulata (5326)
Richmondian449.5 - 443.7Canada (Ontario) Beatricea undulata (22961 173116 173169 173170)