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Xiphactinus audax

Actinopteri - Ichthyodectiformes - Ichthyodectidae

Taxonomy
Polygonodon audax was named by Leidy (1870). It is a 3D body fossil. It is the type species of Xiphactinus.

It was recombined as Saurocephalus audax by Cope (1850); it was recombined as Xiphactinus audax by Leidy (1870), Applegate (1970), Thurmond and Jones (1981), Case and Schwimmer (1988), Schwimmer et al. (1997), Shimada et al. (2006) and Cavin et al. (2013).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1850Saurocephalus audax Cope p. 533
1856Polygonodon audax Leidy p. 221
1870Saurocephalus thaumas Cope p. 533
1870Xiphactinus audax Leidy
1870Polygonodon audax Leidy p. 12
1871Portheus molossus Cope p. 175
1874Portheus thaumas Cope p. 40
1901Portheus molossus Woodward p. 92
1908Portheus thaumas Cockerell p. 173
1970Xiphactinus audax Applegate p. 418
1981Xiphactinus audax Thurmond and Jones p. 97
1988Xiphactinus audax Case and Schwimmer p. 300
1997Xiphactinus audax Schwimmer et al. p. 611
2006Xiphactinus audax Shimada et al. p. 23
2013Xiphactinus audax Cavin et al. p. 161

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
superclassActinopterygii(Cope 1887)
RankNameAuthor
classActinopteri()
subclassNeopterygii(Regan 1923)
Teleosteomorpha
Teleostei(Müller 1846)
Osteossomorpha
orderIchthyodectiformesBardack and Sprinkle 1969
familyIchthyodectidaeCrook 1892
genusXiphactinusLeidy 1870
speciesaudax()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: marinesubp
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: nektonico
Diet: carnivoreo
Created: 2009-07-20 21:09:47
Modified: 2009-07-20 23:23:33
Source: o = order, subp = subphylum
References: Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range: base of the Middle Cenomanian to the top of the Campanian or 99.60000 to 72.10000 Ma

Collections (23 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Cenomanian100.5 - 93.9Venezuela (Trujillo) Xiphactinus audax (176561)
Middle Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Canada (Saskatchewan) Xiphactinus audax (22731 52997)
Middle Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5USA (Kansas) Xiphactinus audax (94538)
Middle Cenomanian - Late/Upper Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5USA (Colorado) Xiphactinus audax (35429)
Turonian93.9 - 89.8USA (Kansas) Xiphactinus audax (102879)
Middle Turonian93.5 - 89.3USA (Kansas) Xiphactinus audax (35365)
Late/Upper Coniacian - Early/Lower Campanian89.3 - 70.6USA (Mississippi) Xiphactinus audax (164393)
Santonian86.3 - 83.6USA (Kansas) Xiphactinus audax (94652)
Santonian86.3 - 83.6USA (Alabama) Xiphactinus audax (81928)
Santonian - Campanian86.3 - 72.1Canada (Alberta) Xiphactinus audax (192128)
Santonian - Maastrichtian86.3 - 66.0USA (Alabama) Xiphactinus audax (81972)
Late/Upper Santonian - Early/Lower Campanian85.8 - 70.6USA (Kansas) Portheus molossus (188488)
Late/Upper Santonian - Early/Lower Campanian85.8 - 70.6USA (Alabama) Xiphactinus audax (81930 81932 81934 82049 82054)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1USA (Georgia) Xiphactinus audax (35289 70720)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1USA (North Carolina) Portheus molossus (190555)
Early/Lower Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (North Carolina) Xiphactinus audax (57918)
Judithian83.5 - 70.6USA (New Jersey) Xiphactinus audax (14455)