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Pteraspidomorpha -

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1868Heterostraci Lankester
1898Heterostraci Gadow p. 4
1902Heterostraci Hay p. 339
1932Heterostraci Bryant p. 231
1963Heterostraci Jordan p. 584
1976Heterostraci Loeffler and Dineley p. 758
1977Heterostraci Ritchie and Gilbert-Tomlinson p. 367
1989Heterostraci Elliot and Loeffler p. 884
1996Heterostraci Elliott and Ilyes p. 153
1999Heterostraci Dineley and Metcalf p. 11
2002Heterostraci Blieck et al. p. 811
2010Heterostraci Elliott and Swift p. 1874
2011Heterostraci Long p. 241
2019Heterostraci Van Der Laan p. 16

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phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
superclassPteraspidomorphi(Goodrich 1909)
subclassHeterostraciLankester 1868
subclassHeterostraciLankester 1868

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

No diagnoses are available
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatitesubp
Locomotion: actively mobilep
Created: 2007-09-27 04:49:26
Modified: 2017-03-09 14:07:44
Source: subp = subphylum, p = phylum
Reference: Kiessling 2004

Age range: base of the Arenig to the top of the Early/Lower Turonian or 478.60000 to 89.30000 Ma

Collections (95 total)

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Arenig478.6 - 466.0Norway Anatolepis heintzi (90321)
Sarka466.0 - 466.0Czech Republic Pteraspis sp. (3857)
Dobrotiva466.0 - 460.9Czech Republic Pteraspis sp. (3859)
Llanvirn466.0 - 460.9Norway Anatolepis heintzi (67174)
Rocklandian460.9 - 449.5USA (Wisconsin) Anatolepis heintzi (90362)
Shermanian460.9 - 449.5USA (Wisconsin) Anatolepis heintzi (90366)
Llandovery443.4 - 433.4Canada (Northwest Territories) Heterostraci indet. 2 (90320) Lanarkia horrida (90314)
Llandovery - Ludlow443.4 - 423.0USA (New York) Vernonaspis sp. (12764)
Silurian443.4 - 419.2Canada (Yukon) Ariaspis ornata, Vernonaspis major, Ptomaspis canadensis, Dikenaspis yukonensis, Homalaspidella borealis, Traquairaspis angusta (185831)
Silurian443.4 - 419.2USA (Pennsylvania) Vernonaspis sp. (12763)
Wenlock433.4 - 427.4Canada (Northwest Territories) Ariaspis sp., Vernonaspis sp., Traquairaspis sp. (497) Tolypelepis sp. A (188784)
Wenlock - Ludlow433.4 - 423.0Canada (Nunavut) Cyathaspis sp. (26882)
Wenlock - Ludlow433.4 - 423.0United Kingdom (Scotland) Lanarkia sp. (26906)
Wenlock - Ludlow433.4 - 423.0Canada (Northwest Territories) Cyathaspididae indet. (188832 188834)
Homerian430.5 - 427.4China (Sichuan) Nostolepis tewonensis (182550)
Homerian - Gorstian430.5 - 425.6United Kingdom (Scotland) Traquairaspis sp. (26907)
Ludlow427.4 - 423.0United Kingdom (Scotland) Lanarkia sp. (26896)
Ludlow427.4 - 423.0Russian Federation Cyathaspididae indet. (90326)
Ludlow427.4 - 423.0Canada (Northwest Territories) Nostolepis sp. (534)
Ludlow427.4 - 423.0USA (Pennsylvania) Americaspis sp., Vernonaspis sp. (14206)
Ludfordian425.6 - 423.0Sweden (Gotland) Nostolepis striata, Gomphodus sandelensis, Gomphodus hoppei (13820)
Ludfordian425.6 - 423.0China (Junnan) Nostolepis sp. (182558)
Ludfordian425.6 - 423.0USA (New York) Vernonaspis sp. (26085)
Kaugetuma423.0 - 419.2Estonia Nostolepis striata, Nostolepis gracilis (195606)
Ohesaare423.0 - 419.2Estonia (Saare) Tolypelepis undulata, Nostolepis striata, Nostolepis gracilis, Strosipherus indentatus (193837)
Ohesaare423.0 - 419.2Estonia Tolypelepis undulata, Nostolepis striata, Nostolepis gracilis, Strosipherus indentatus, Gomphodus sandelensis (13831)
Pridoli423.0 - 419.2Canada (Nunavut) Ariaspis arctata (185830) Corvaspis arctica, Traquairaspidida indet., Cyathaspidida indet. (90324) Cyathaspididae indet. (14024)
Pridoli423.0 - 419.2USA (New York) Vernonaspis sp. (493)
Pridoli423.0 - 419.2China (Junnan) Nostolepis sp., Nostolepis striata, Nostolepis sinica (182559)
Pridoli423.0 - 419.2Canada (New Brunswick) Cyathaspis acadica (161318)
Pridoli423.0 - 419.2United Kingdom (England) Cyathaspis sp. (26914)
Pridoli423.0 - 419.2Estonia Nostolepis striata, Gomphodus sandelensis (13829) Tolypelepis undulata, Nostolepis striata, Nostolepis gracilis, Strosipherus indentatus, Gomphodus sandelensis (13830)
Pridoli423.0 - 419.2Russian Federation Tolypelepis undulata, Cyathaspididae indet., Strosipherus sp. (90328)
Paadla422.9 - 419.2Estonia Nostolepis striata, Gomphodus sandelensis (13826 13827)
Kuressaare421.3 - 419.2Estonia Nostolepis striata, Gomphodus sandelensis (13828)
Kuressaare421.3 - 419.2Estonia (Saare) Nostolepis striata (195605)
Lochkovian419.2 - 410.8Russian Federation Anglaspis sp., Anglaspis sp. 1, Ctenaspis sp., Ctenaspis sp. 1, Poraspis sp., Lepidaspis sp., Poraspis polaris, Heterostraci indet., Corvaspididae indet., Traquairaspidiformes indet., Phialaspis sp., Pteraspidiformes indet., Irregulareaspis sp., Homalaspidella sp., Protopteraspis sp., Unarkaspis sp., Pteraspididae indet., Putoranaspis sp., Poraspididae indet., Amphiaspidiformes indet. (90330) Corvaspididae indet., Tesseraspis sp., Tesseraspis mosaica (90329) Nostolepis sp. (26672 26673)
Lochkovian419.2 - 410.8Canada (Nunavut) Anglaspis sp., Ctenaspis russelli, Aporemaspis pholidata (90322) Cyathaspididae indet. (14027) Pteraspididae indet., Cyathaspididae indet. (14026)
Lochkovian419.2 - 410.8Norway Anglaspis sp., Corvaspis sp., Ctenaspis sp., Dinaspidella sp., Poraspis sp., Traquairaspis sp., Protopteraspis sp. (26929)
Lochkovian419.2 - 410.8France Anglaspis sp., Poraspis sp., Nostolepis sp., Protopteraspis sp. (26983)
Lochkovian419.2 - 410.8United Kingdom (England) Althaspis sp. (90351) Europrotapsis crenulata, Althaspis leachi (90352) Pteraspis rostrata (10679) Pteraspis sp., Weigeltaspis sp. (26918)
Lochkovian419.2 - 410.8China (Yunnan) Nostolepis sp. (162781)
Lochkovian419.2 - 410.8Ukraine Corvaspis sp., Traquairaspis sp., Podolaspis sp., Larnovaspis sp. (26978) Cyathaspis sturi, Pteraspis podolicus, Pteraspis kneri, Pteraspididae indet. A, Pteraspididae indet. B, Pteraspididae indet. E, Palaeaspis simionescui, Pteraspis rostrata (90350) Pteraspis major, Larnovaspis major, Larnovaspis kneri, Pteraspis rostrata (90349)
Lochkovian419.2 - 410.8USA (Wyoming) Protaspis brevispina, Protaspis mcgrewi, Cardipeltis richardoni, Cardipeltis bryanti, Protaspis transversa, Lampraspis tuberculata (153534)
Lochkovian419.2 - 410.8Canada (Nova Scotia) Traquairaspis sp., Protopteraspis sp. (14201)
Lochkovian - Pragian419.2 - 407.6USA (Ohio) Zascinaspis sp. (26874)
Lochkovian - Pragian419.2 - 407.6Ukraine Pteraspis sp. (23447)
Early/Lower Devonian419.2 - 393.3USA (Wyoming) Protaspis brevispina, Protaspis mcgrewi, Cardipeltis richardsoni, Cardipeltis bryanti, Protaspis transversa, Lampraspis tuberculata (26179)
Ditton416.0 - 412.3United Kingdom (Herefordshire) Pteraspis jackana, Weigeltaspis sp., Pteraspis crouchi, Pteraspis rostrata, Pteraspis waynensis (201736)
Pragian410.8 - 407.6Russian Federation Poraspis sp., Traquairaspidiformes indet., Protopteraspididae indet., Protopteraspididae indet. 1, Pteraspidiformes indet., Pteraspididae indet., Miltaspis sp., Gigantaspis sp., Poraspididae indet. (90331)
Pragian410.8 - 407.6Ukraine Pteraspis major, Pteraspididae indet. D, Pteraspididae indet. F, Pteraspididae indet. G, Podolaspis lerichei, Brachipteraspis latissima (90348)
Early/Lower Emsian409.1 - 402.5Russian Federation Nostolepis sp. A (35710) Nostolepis sp. A, Nostolepis sp. (35711) Nostolepis sp. A, Nostolepis sp. B (35712 35713)
Early/Lower Emsian409.1 - 402.5Germany (Gemuenden) Drepanaspis gemuendensis, Pteraspis dunensis (26903)
Early/Lower Emsian409.1 - 402.5Germany (Alken) Drepanaspis sp., Rhinopteraspis dunensis (27049)
Emsian407.6 - 393.3New Zealand Nostolepis striata, Nostolepis gracilis (40524)
Emsian407.6 - 393.3USA (Wyoming) Protaspis ovata, Protaspis sculpta, Cardipeltis wallacii (26176)
Late/Upper Emsian402.5 - 391.9Russian Federation Nostolepis sp. A (35720) Nostolepis sp. A, Nostolepis sp. B, Nostolepis sp. (35718) Nostolepis sp. C (35715)
Eifelian393.3 - 387.7Brazil (Para) Pteraspis sp. (37137)
Eifelian393.3 - 387.7USA (California) Pteraspididae indet., Blieckaspis priscillae (206448) Pteraspididae indet., Cyathaspididae indet., Panamintaspis snowi (206449)
Eifelian393.3 - 387.7Russian Federation Pycnosteus sp., Tartuosteus sp., Heterostraci indet., Protopteraspididae indet 2, Psammosteus sp., Psammosteidae indet., Psammolepis sp. (90332)
Early/Lower Givetian388.1 - 383.7Russian Federation Tartuosteus sp., Heterostraci indet., Psammosteus sp., Psammosteidae indet., Psammolepis sp. (90333)
Late/Upper Givetian388.1 - 383.7Russian Federation Heterostraci indet., Psammosteus sp., Psammolepis sp. (90334)
Early/Lower Frasnian383.7 - 382.4Russian Federation Oredezhosteus kuleshovi (90346) Psammosteus sp. (90335) Tartuosteus zheleznogorskensis, Psammosteus praecursor (90343)
Early/Lower Frasnian383.7 - 382.4Latvia Oredezhosteus livonicus (90347)
Late/Upper Frasnian379.5 - 376.1Russian Federation Psammosteus sp. (90336)
Pennsylvanian323.2 - 298.9United Kingdom Psammosteus granulatus (132818) Psammosteus vermicularis (132819)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0Germany (Sud-Deutsche Senke) Pachylepis quinquies (24808)
Early/Lower Turonian93.5 - 89.3Czech Republic Gomphodus scrobiculatus (90516 90518)