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Pliomeridae

Trilobita - Phacopida - Pliomeridae

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1913Pliomeridae Raymond
1957Pliomeridae Harrington and Leanza
1961Pliomeridae Nikolaisen
1997Pliomeridae Whittington et al. p. 300
1999Pliomeridae Fortey and Droser p. 195
2011Pliomeridae Adrain p. 106

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Protostomia
Ecdysozoa
Panarthropoda
phylumArthropodaLatreille 1829
RankNameAuthor
subphylumArtiopoda(Hou and Bergstrom)
classTrilobitaWalch 1771
orderPhacopidaSalter 1864
suborderCheirurinaHarrington and Leanza 1957
familyPliomeridaeRaymond 1913
familyPliomeridaeRaymond 1913

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Fm. †Pliomeridae Raymond 1913
show all | hide all
G. †Anapliomera Demott 1987
G. †Benedettia Toro and Mondali 1981
G. †Colobinion Whittington 1961
+
Colobinion julius Billings 1865
Subfm. †Cybelopsinae Fortey 1979
+
G. †Canningella Legg 1976
+
Canningella hardmani Legg 1976
G. †Cybelopsis Poulsen 1927
G. †Ectenonotus Raymond 1920
+
Ectenonotus marginatus Holliday 1942
Ectenonotus progenitor Fortey and Droser 1996
Ectenonotus raymondi Holliday 1942
Ectenonotus westoni Billings 1865
Ectenonotus whittingtoni Ross and Barnes 1967
G. †Pseudocybele Ross 1951
+
Pseudocybele altinasuta Hintze 1953
Pseudocybele nasuta Ross 1951
G. †Strotactinus Bradley 1925
+
Strotactinus insularis Billings 1865
G. †Encrinurella Reed 1915
+
G. †Evropeites Balashova 1966
+
Evropeites hyperboreus Fortey 1980
G. †Gogoella Legg 1976
+
Gogoella brevis Fortey and Shergold 1984
G. †Guizhoupliomerops Zhu and Yin 1978
Subfm. †Hammatocneminae Kielan 1960
+
G. †Ovalocephalus Koroleva 1959
+
Ovalocephalus eoprimitivus Zhou and Zhou 2008
Ovalocephalus kelleri Koroleva 1959
Invalid names: Hammatocnemis Kielan 1960 [synonym], Paratzuchiatocnemis Wu and Xia 1990 [synonym], Tzuchiatocnemis Sheng 1974 [synonym]
G. †Hintzeia Harrington 1957
+
Hintzeia actinura Dalman 1824
+
Invalid names: Pliomera mathesii Angelin 1854 [synonym]
Hintzeia celsaora Ross 1951
+
Invalid names: Protopliomerops aemula Hintze 1953 [synonym]
Hintzeia firmimarginis Hintze 1953
Hintzeia parafirmimarginis McAdams and Adrain 2011
Invalid names: Kanoshia Harrington 1957 [synonym]
G. †Ibexaspis Pribyl and Vanek 1985
+
Ibexaspis brevis Young 1973
G. †Josephulus Warburg 1925
G. †Leiostrototropis Raymond 1937
+
Leiostrototropis phlegeri Raymond 1937
G. †Lemureops McAdams and Adrain 2009
+
Lemureops kilbeyi McAdams and Adrain 2009
Lemureops koppesi McAdams and Adrain 2009
Lemureops lemurei Hintze 1953
Lemureops ploogi McAdams and Adrain 2009
Lemureops willsonpiperi McAdams and Adrain 2009
G. †Liexiaspis Liu 1982
+
G. †Obliteraspis Ogienko 1984
G. †Parapliomera Maksimova 1962
G. †Perissopliomera Ross 1970
+
G. †Placoparia Hawle and Corda 1847
+
Subg. †Placoparia (Placoparia) Hammann 1971
+
Placoparia borni Hammann 1977
Placoparia cambriensis Hicks 1875
G. †Pliomera Angelin 1845
+
Pliomera fisheri Eichwald 1825
Pliomera peripata Edgecombe et al. 1999
Pliomera tmetophrys Harrington and Leanza 1957
Invalid names: Amphion Pander 1830 [replaced]
G. †Pliomerella Reed 1941
+
Pliomerella americana Cooper 1953
G. †Pliomeridius Leanza and Baldis 1975
G. †Pliomerina Chugaeva 1956
+
Pliomerina rigida Kolobova 1972
Pliomerina serrata Zhou and Zhou 2006
Pliomerina trisulcata Edgecombe et al. 1999
Invalid names: Pliomeraspis Harrington 1957 [objective synonym]
Subfm. †Pliomerinae Raymond 1913
+
G. †Pliomerops Raymond 1905
+
Pliomerops bilirata Raymond 1925
Pliomerops canadensis Billings 1859
Pliomerops lacunatus Dean 1989
Pliomerops praematura Fortey 1980
Pliomerops trouti Raymond 1925
G. †Protoencrinurella Legg 1976
+
G. †Protopliomerella Harrington 1957
+
G. †Protopliomerops Kobayashi 1934
+
Protopliomerops quattuor Hintze 1953
Protopliomerops radiatus Kobayashi 1955
G. †Pseudomera Holliday 1942
+
Pseudomera arachnopyge Fortey and Droser 1996
Pseudomera barrandei Billings 1865
+
Invalid names: Pliomerops nevadensis Walcott 1884 [synonym]
Pseudomera billingsi Whittington 1961
Pseudomera insolita Poulsen 1927
Pseudomera nevadensis Walcott 1884
G. †Rossaspis Harrington 1957
+
Rossaspis leboni Adrain et al. 2014
Rossaspis rossi Harrington and Leanza 1957
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: low Mg calcitec
Composition 2: chitinc
Entire body: yesf
Adult length: 10 to < 100f
Adult width: 10 to < 100f
Ontogeny: molting, addition of partsc
Environment: marinec
Locomotion: fast-movingc
Life habit: low-level epifaunalc
Diet: carnivorec
Vision: well-developedf
Comments: BODY SIZE: Based on component genera; 5 of 5 genera share 10 to < 100 length, 4 of 5 share 10 to < 100 width.f
Created: 2009-06-11 18:29:43
Modified: 2009-12-16 01:33:48
Source: f = family, c = class
References: Hendy 2009, Aberhan et al. 2004

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Tulean to the top of the Pusgillian or 480.80000 to 449.20000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 478.6 Ma

Collections (716 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Ibexian487.5 - 470.0Norway (Spitsbergen) Strotactinus sp. A (106475)
Ibexian487.5 - 470.0USA (Nevada) Hintzeia celsaora (91172)
Ibexian487.5 - 470.0Canada (Quebec) Pseudomera billingsi (111459) Strotactinus sp. (111453)
Tremadoc486.5 - 477.7Bolivia Rossaspis rossi (8839)
Tremadoc486.5 - 477.7Sweden Protopliomerops primigenius (3107 3108)
Tremadoc486.5 - 477.7Russian Federation (Gorny Altai) Parapliomera sibirica (186011)
Tremadoc486.5 - 477.7Argentina (Jujuy) Protopliomerops rossi (115662 115664 115669 115671) Protopliomerops sp. (115666)
Tremadoc486.5 - 477.7Argentina Protopliomerops sp. (9010 9011) Rossaspis sp. (8897)
Tremadoc486.5 - 477.7Canada (Alberta) Pliomeridius lacunatus (10920) Pliomeridius lacunatus, Pseudocybele nasuta (10922 10924) Pliomeridius sulcatus (10935 10938) Pliomeridius sulcatus, Pliomeridius lacunatus (10923) Protopliomerops radiatus (10910 10914) Pseudocybele nasuta (10902 10905 10917 10918 10921 10925)
Tremadoc486.5 - 477.7China (Hunan) Protopliomerops sp. (7703)
Tremadoc486.5 - 477.7Argentina (Salta) Protopliomerops rossi (115704 115705 115772 115818 116067 116070 116071 116079 116080 116081 116083 116084)
Tremadoc486.5 - 477.7Argentina (La Rioja) Protopliomerops sp. (116139)
Tremadoc486.5 - 477.7Russian Federation (Siberia) Parapliomera sp. (9271 9275 9276 9282 9285)
Stairsian485.4 - 478.6USA (Nevada) Rossaspis sp. (278)
Stairsian485.4 - 478.6USA (Utah) Protopliomerops sp. 5 (104110) Protopliomerops superciliosa (104144 104252)
Stairsian485.4 - 478.6USA (Idaho) P. sp. 1, Hintzeia celsaora (228283) Protopliomerops superciliosa (103822) Rossaspis superciliosa (106389 228261 228262)
Gasconadian485.4 - 477.7USA (Nevada) Rossaspis sp. (104510)
Tremadocian485.4 - 477.7Argentina (Salta) Rossaspis sp. (208318 208319 208320 208327 208332)
Tremadocian485.4 - 477.7Russian Federation (Siberia) Parapliomera sibirica (205623)
Early/Lower Ordovician485.4 - 470.0USA (Utah) Pseudocybele nasuta (77844) Pseudocybele nasuta, Pseudomera insolita (77845)