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Polytoechioidea

Strophomenata - Billingsellida

Taxonomy
Polytoechioidea was named by Opik (1934).

It was assigned to Clitambonitidina by Williams et al. (2000); and to Billingsellida by Popov et al. (2009).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1934Polytoechioidea Opik
2000Polytoechioidea Williams et al. p. 707
2009Polytoechioidea Popov et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Protostomia
Spiralia
superphylumLophotrochozoa
Lophophorata
PanbrachiopodaCarlson and Cohen 2020
RankNameAuthor
phylumBrachiopodaCuvier 1805
subphylumRhynchonelliformeaWilliams et al. 1996
classStrophomenataWilliams et al 1996
orderBillingsellida
suborderClitambonitidinaOpik 1934
superfamilyPolytoechioideaOpik 1934
superfamilyPolytoechioideaOpik 1934

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Superfm. †Polytoechioidea Opik 1934
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Fm. †Polytoechiidae Opik 1934
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Acanthotoechia hibernica Williams and Curry 1985
G. †Eremotoechia Cooper 1956
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Eremotoechia alabamensis Cooper 1956
Eremotoechia cloudi Cooper 1956
Eremotoechia inchoata Popov et al. 2001
Eremotoechia silicica Cooper 1956
Eremotoechia spissa Popov et al. 2001
G. †Martellia Wirth 1936
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Martellia ichangensis Wang 1956
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Invalid names: Martellia fenxiangensis Zeng 1977 [synonym]
Martellia mesocosta Benedetto 1987
Martellia reliqua Popov et al. 2001
Martellia shabdjerehensis Percival et al. 2009
Martellia talacostensis Benedetto 1987
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Platytoechia boucoti Neuman 1964
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Polytoechia inaequistriata Ulrich and Cooper 1938
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Protambonites hooshangi Popov et al. 2009
Protambonites lermontovae Andreeva 1960
Protambonites soror Barrande 1879
G. †Raunites
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Raunites janischewskyi Lessnikow 1924
Raunites venusta Opik 1934
Invalid names: Rauna Öpik 1932 [replaced]
G. †Tritoechia Ulrich and Cooper 1936
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Subg. †Tritoechia (Parvitritoechia) Benedetto et al. 2003
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Tritoechia (Parvitritoechia) preandina Benedetto et al. 2003
Subg. †Tritoechia (Tritoechia) Ulrich and Cooper 1936
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Tritoechia (Tritoechia) prima Benedetto et al. 2003
Tritoechia alta Ulrich and Cooper 1938
Tritoechia billingsi Neuman 1968
Tritoechia careyi Brown 1948
Tritoechia crassa Popov et al. 2001
Tritoechia delicatula Ulrich and Cooper 1936
Tritoechia karmbergensis Laurie 1980
Tritoechia kendyktasica Rukavishnikova 1961
Tritoechia lewisi Brown 1948
Tritoechia mollesensis Benedetto 2003
Tritoechia quebecensis Ulrich and Foerste 1936
Tritoechia sinuata Ulrich and Cooper 1938
Tritoechia tokmakensis Popov et al. 2001
Tritoechia typica Schuchert and Cooper 1932
Fm. †Tritoechiidae Ulrich and Cooper 1936
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G. †Korinevskia Popov et al. 2001
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Korinevskia akbulakensis Andreeva 1960
G. †Pinatotoechia Benedetto 2001
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Pinatotoechia acantha Benedetto 2001
Subfm. †Tritoechiinae Ulrich and Cooper
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G. †Pomatotrema Ulrich and Cooper 1932
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Pomatotrema fecunda Popov et al. 2001
Pomatotrema inconspicuum Williams and Curry 1985
Pomatotrema oklahomense Ulrich and Cooper 1936
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Invalid names: Martellia transversa Feng and Zeng 1977 [synonym]
Pomatotrema transversum Ulrich and Cooper 1938
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: low Mg calcitep
Environment: marineuc
Locomotion: stationaryo
Attached: yeso
Life habit: epifaunalo
Diet: suspension feedero
Vision: blindc
Created: 2009-09-21 12:54:52
Modified: 2009-09-21 14:54:52
Source: o = order, c = class, p = phylum, uc = unranked clade
References: Bambach et al. 2007, Aberhan et al. 2004, Nesnidal et al. 2013

Age range: base of the Tulean to the top of the Whiterockian or 480.80000 to 457.30000 Ma

Collections (309 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Ibexian487.5 - 470.0USA (Nevada) Asymphylotoechia nolani (104434) Tritoechia alta (91172)
Tremadoc486.5 - 477.7Argentina Tritoechia preandina, Tritoechia prima (66890)
Tremadoc486.5 - 477.7China (Guizhou) Tritoechia sp. (4770 4772)
Tremadoc486.5 - 477.7China (AnHui) Tritoechia sp. (7831)
Tremadoc486.5 - 477.7China (Hubei) Polytoechia sp., Pomatotrema sp., Tritoechia sp. (7728) Tritoechia sp. (4727 4728 4729 4730 4738 61727)
Tremadoc486.5 - 477.7China (Sichuan) Tritoechia sp. (7651 7673)
Tremadoc486.5 - 477.7Czech Republic Protambonites soror (192830 210110) Protambonites sp. (3782 3837)
Tremadoc486.5 - 477.7Argentina (San Juan) Tritoechia preandina, Tritoechia prima (66889 66891)
Tremadoc486.5 - 477.7Iran Polytoechia hecatompylensis (116235 116238) Protambonites hooshangi (116232 116233 210345) Protambonites sp. (116512) Tritoechia sp. (185924 185925)
Tremadoc486.5 - 477.7China (Anhui) Tritoechia sp. (80137)

Youngest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state PBDB collection number
Darriwilian467.3 - 458.4Australia (Tasmania) Tritoechia sp. (2674)
Darriwilian467.3 - 458.4China (Tibet) Tritoechia sp. (186228)
Darriwilian467.3 - 458.4China (Yunnan) Peritritoechia imbricatia, Tritoechia sp., Martellia ichangensis (54187)
Late/Upper Llanvirn463.5 - 460.9China (Yunnan) Polytoechia sp., Martellia sp. (7283)
Llandeilo461.1 - 458.4United Kingdom (Scotland) Eremotoechia silicica (164937)
Llandeilo461.1 - 458.4Kazakhstan Eremotoechia inchoata (165495 165496 165647)
Llandeilo461.1 - 458.4China (XinJiang) Polytoechia sp., Martellia sp. (20809)
Costonian - Harnagian458.4 - 457.2China (ShanXi) Polytoechia sp. (8009)
Caradoc458.4 - 449.5Kazakhstan Eremotoechia spissa (165645 165646)
Caradoc458.4 - 449.5China (Guizhou) Peritritoechia imbricatia (186302)