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Cotylosauria

Sister taxa
Captorhiniformes, Conodectiformes, Diadectiformes, Diadectosauria, Gymnarthriformes (syn. Gymnarthria), Pantyliformes (syn. Pantylosauria), Pantyloidea, Pareiasauriformes, Sauraviformes

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1880Cotylosauria Cope p. 304
1902Cotylosauria Hay p. 426
1903Cotylosauria Osborn p. 276
1904Cotylosauria Osborn p. 99
1911Cotylosauria Jaekel p. 121
1913Cotylosauria Broom
1917Cotylosauria Williston p. 420
1930Cotylosauria Hay p. 28
1934Cotylosauria Swinton p. 52
1937Cotylosauria Roxo p. 42
1946Cotylosauria Kuhn p. 55
1950Cotylosauria Stovall p. 46
1954Cotylosauria Haughton and Brink p. 3
1956Cotylosauria Romer p. 476
1965Cotylosauria Lewis and Vaughn p. C12
1966Cotylosauria Kuhn p. 12
1967Cotylosauria Carroll p. 1256
1969Cotylosauria Carroll p. 152
1971Cotylosauria Haubold p. 26
1973Cotylosauria Daly p. 584
1974Cotylosauria Haubold p. 26
1975Cotylosauria Colbert and Kitching p. 3
1977Cotylosauria Gow p. 110
1979Cotylosauria Heaton p. 11
1983Cotylosauria Lavina p. 53
1988Cotylosauria Gauthier et al. p. 139 fig. 4.4
1995Cotylosauria Laurin and Reisz p. 173 fig. 2

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1874
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
subclassSarcopterygii()
RankNameAuthor
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
subclassAmphibiosauriaKuhn 1967
Cotylosauria()
Cotylosauria()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Unr. Cotylosauria Cope 1880
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Unr. Amniota Haeckel 1866 [amniote]
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G. †Colognathus Case 1933
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Colognathus obscurus Case 1928
Invalid names: Xenognathus Case 1928 [replaced]
G. †Enigmatopus Biron and Dutuit 1981
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Enigmatopus atlensis Biron and Dutuit 1981
G. †Gnorhimosuchus Efremov 1951
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Gnorhimosuchus satpaevi Efremov 1951
G. †Kraterokheirodon Irmis and Parker 2005
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Kraterokheirodon colberti Irmis and Parker 2005
Subor. †Mesosauria Seeley 1892
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Invalid names: Neusticosauria Seeley 1892 [empty], Proganosauria Baur 1887 [synonym]
Unr. †Recumbirostra Anderson 2007
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G. †Aletrimyti Szostakiwskyj et al. 2015
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Aletrimyti gaskillae Szostakiwskyj et al. 2015
Fm. †Brachystelechidae Carroll and Gaskill 1978
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G. †Batropetes Carroll and Gaskill 1971
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Batropetes appelensis Glienke 2015
Batropetes fritschia Geinitz and Deichmüller 1882
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Invalid names: Batropetes truncatus Credner 1890 [synonym]
Batropetes palatinus Glienke 2015
Invalid names: Brachystelechus Carroll and Gaskill 1978 [synonym], Petrobates Credner 1890 [replaced]
G. †Bromerpeton MacDougall et al. 2024
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Bromerpeton subcolossus MacDougall et al. 2024
G. †Carrolla Langston and Olsen 1986
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Carrolla craddocki Langston and Olson 1986
G. †Diabloroter Mann and Maddin 2019
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Diabloroter bolti Mann and Maddin 2019
G. †Quasicaecilia Carroll 1990
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Quasicaecilia texana Carroll 1990
Invalid names: Batropetidae Carroll 1988 [synonym]
G. †Dvellecanus Szostakiwskyj et al. 2015
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Dvellecanus carrolli Szostakiwskyj et al. 2015
Fm. †Gymnarthridae Case 1910
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G. †Bolterpeton Anderson and Reisz 2003
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Bolterpeton carrolli Anderson and Reisz 2003
G. †Cardiocephalus Broili 1904
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Cardiocephalus peabodyi Carroll and Gaskill 1978
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Invalid names: Gymnarthrus willoughbyi Case 1910 [synonym]
Invalid names: Gymnarthrus Case 1910 [synonym]
G. †Elfridia Thayer 1985
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Elfridia bulbidens Thayer 1985
G. †Euryodus Olson 1939
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Euryodus bonneri Schultze and Foreman 1981
Euryodus dalyae Carroll and Gaskill 1978
Euryodus primus Olson 1939
G. †Goniorhynchus Olson 1970
G. †Hylerpeton Owen 1862
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Hylerpeton dawsoni Owen 1862
Hylerpeton longidentatum Dawson 1876
G. †Leiocephalikon Steen 1934
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Invalid names: Leiocephalikon eutheton Steen 1934 [synonym]
G. †Pariotichus Cope 1878
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Pariotichus brachyops Cope 1878
G. †Sparodus Fritsch 1876
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Sparodus validus Fritsch 1876
Invalid names: Batrachocephalus Fritsch 1876 [replaced]
G. †Stegotretus Berman et al. 1988
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Stegotretus agyrus Berman et al. 1988
G. †Huskerpeton Huttenlocker et al. 2013
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Huskerpeton englehorni Huttenlocker et al. 2013
G. †Joermungandr Mann et al. 2021
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Joermungandr bolti Mann et al. 2021
Or. †Lysorophia
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G. †Megamolgophis Romer 1952
Fm. †Molgophidae Cope 1875
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G. †Infernovenator Mann et al. 2019
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Infernovenator steenae Mann et al. 2019
G. †Molgophis Cope 1868
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Molgophis macrurus Cope 1868
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Invalid names: Molgophis brevicostatus Cope 1875 [synonym]
Invalid names: Cocytinidae Cope 1875 [synonym]
Fm. †Ostodolepidae Romer 1945
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G. †Micraroter Daly 1973
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G. †Nannaroter Anderson et al. 2009
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Nannaroter mckinziei Anderson et al. 2009
G. †Ostodolepis Williston 1913
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Ostodolepis brevispinatus Williston 1913
G. †Pelodosotis Carroll and Gaskill 1978
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Pelodosotis elongatum Carroll and Gaskill 1978
G. †Tambaroter Henrici et al. 2011
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Tambaroter carrolli Henrici et al. 2011
Fm. †Pantylidae Case 1911
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G. †Pantylus Cope 1881
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Pantylus coicodus Cope 1896
Pantylus cordatus Cope 1881
Pantylus tryptychus Cummins 1908
G. †Trachystegos Carroll 1966
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Trachystegos megalodon Carroll 1966
G. †Proxilodon Huttenlocker et al. 2013
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Proxilodon bonneri Schultze and Foreman 1981
G. †Steenerpeton Mann et al. 2020
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Steenerpeton silvae Mann et al. 2020
Unr. Sauropsida Huxley 1864
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Fm. †Mesosauridae Baur 1889
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G. †Brazilosaurus Shikama and Ozaki 1966
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Brazilosaurus sanpauloensis Shikama and Ozaki 1966
G. †Mesosaurus Gervais 1865
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Mesosaurus tenuidens Gervais 1865
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Invalid names: Ditrochosaurus capensis Gürich 1889 [synonym], Mesosaurus brasiliensis Mac Gregor 1908 [synonym]
Invalid names: Ditrochosaurus Gürich 1889 [synonym]
G. †Stereosternum Cope 1885
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Stereosternum tumidum Cope 1885
Invalid names: Mesosaurus pleurogaster Seeley 1892 [nomen dubium], Noteosaurus Broom 1913 [invalid subgroup], Noteosaurus africanus Broom 1913 [nomen dubium]
Cl. Reptilia Laurenti 1768 [reptile]
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Unr. Amblyglossae Fitzinger 1843
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Or. Dendrobatae Wiegmann 1834
Subcl. Anapsida Williston 1917 [anapsid]
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Superor. Chelonomorpha Kuhn 1960
G. †Anhomoiichnium Dozy 1935
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Anhomoiichnium diversum Schmidt 1959
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Invalid names: Akropus diversus Schmidt 1959 [synonym]
G. †Apatomerus Williston 1903
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Apatomerus mirus Williston 1903
Subcl. †Archaeosauria Jaekel 1911
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Invalid names: Gephyrostegi Jaekel 1911 [empty]
G. †Cunichnoides Hitchcock 1858
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Cunichnoides marsupialoideus Hitchcock 1858
G. †Dimetropus Romer and Price 1940
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Dimetropus berea Tilton 1931
Dimetropus latus Heyler and Montenat 1980
Dimetropus leisnerianus Geintiz 1863
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Invalid names: Ichnium acrodactylum Pabst 1908 [synonym]
Subcl. Diplotremata Hay 1930
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Invalid names: Eoditremata Hay 1930 [empty]
G. †Dolichobrachium Williston 1904
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Dolichobrachium gracile Williston 1904
G. †Embolophorus Cope 1878
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Subcl. Eureptilia Olson 1947 [eureptile]
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Fm. †Captorhinidae Case 1911
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Invalid names: Pariotichidae Cope 1883 [synonym]
Fm. †Protorothyrididae Price 1937
Unr. Romeriida Gauthier et al. 1988
G. †Thuringothyris Boy and Martens 1991
Invalid names: Captorhina Olson 1947 [empty], Parapsida Williston 1917 [empty]
G. Glauconia Gray 1845
G. †Ischyrotherium Leidy 1856
G. †Isocampe Hitchcock 1858
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Isocampe strata Hitchcock 1858
G. †Kintneria Ryan and Willard 1947
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Kintneria brunswickii Ryan and Willard 1947
G. †Metamosaurus Cope 1878
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Metamosaurus fossatus Cope 1878
Or. Monopnoa Fitzinger 1826
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Invalid names: Nuda Müller [empty]
Subcl. Monozygocrotapha Nopcsa 1928
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Invalid names: Dranitesauria Nopcsa 1928 [empty], Pelycosauria Cope 1878 [empty]
G. †Onychichnium Dozy 1935
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Onychichnium escheri Dozy 1935
G. †Oolithes Buckman 1859
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Oolithes bathonicae Buckman 1859
Oolithes obtusatus Carruthers 1871
Oolithes sphaericus Carruthers 1871
Unr. Pantestudines Joyce et al. 2004
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G. †Eorhynchochelys Li et al. 2018
G. †Pappochelys Schoch and Sues 2015
Subcl. †Parareptilia Lawrence 1868 [parareptile]
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Unr. †Bolosauria Kuhn 1959
Superor. †Cheloniamorpha Ivakhnenko 1997
G. †Eunotosaurus Seeley 1892
G. †Kinelia Bulanov 2002
G. †Microleter Tsuji et al. 2010
Fm. †Millerettidae Romer 1956
Fm. †Nyctiphruretidae Efremov 1938
Superfm. †Procolophonoidea Romer 1956
Unr. †Procolophonomorpha Romer 1964
Subcl. †Poeciloglyptica Hay 1930
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Superor. †Catacritosauria Hay 1930
Superor. †Elpidosauria Hay 1930
Invalid names: Astatoglyptica Hay 1930 [empty]
G. †Polemarchus Hitchcock 1845
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Polemarchus dananus Hitchcock 1848
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Invalid names: Palamopus clarki Hitchcock 1858 [synonym]
Polemarchus polemarchius Hitchcock 1837
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Invalid names: Polemarchus gigas Hitchcock 1845 [synonym]
Invalid names: Eupalamopus Hay 1902 [synonym], Palamopus Hitchcock 1848 [synonym]
Superor. Rhizodonta Bonaparte 1838
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Invalid names: Emydosaurii Bonaparte 1850 [empty]
Fm. †Rhynchosauroidae Haubold 1966
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G. †Dromopus Marsh 1894
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Invalid names: Eumekichnium Nopcsa 1923 [synonym]
G. †Palmichnus Schmidt 1959
G. †Paradoxichnium Müller 1959
G. †Phalangichnus Schmidt 1959
G. †Sillimanius Hitchcock 1845
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Sillimanius gracilior Hitchcock 1841
Sillimanius tetradactylus Hitchcock 1836
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Invalid names: Ornithopus gallinaceus Hitchcock 1845 [synonym]
Invalid names: Ornithopus Hitchcock 1845 [synonym]
Unr. Squamata Oppel 1811 [squamates]
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Infraor. Amphisbaenia Gray 1844 [worm lizard]
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Invalid names: Annulati [synonym]
Unr. Anguimorpha Fürbringer 1900
G. †Anhuisaurus Hou 1974
G. †Anqingosaurus Hou 1976
G. †Ardeosaurus von Meyer 1860
G. †Asagaolacerta Evans and Matusmoto 2015
G. †Bavarisaurus Hoffstetter 1953
G. †Changjiangosaurus Hou 1976
G. †Cuencasaurus Richter 1994
Fm. Dibamidae Boulenger 1884
G. †Eichstaettisaurus Kuhn 1958
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Invalid names: Broilisaurus Hoffstetter 1953 [synonym]
Unr. Episquamata Pyron et al. 2013
G. †Hakuseps Evans and Matusmoto 2015
G. †Hongshanxi Dong et al. 2019
G. †Hoyalacerta Evans and Barbadillo 1999
G. †Huehuecuetzpalli Reynoso 1998
Unr. †Iguanomorpha Sukhanov 1961
G. †Jucaraseps Bolet and Evans 2012
G. †Kuroyuriella Evans and Matusmoto 2015
Subor. Lacertilia Owen 1842 [lizard]
G. †Lamiasaura Longrich et al. 2013
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Invalid names: Lamiasaurus Longrich et al. 2012 [replaced]
G. †Liushusaurus Evans and Wang 2010
Fm. †Macrocnemidae Kuhn 1946
G. †Megachirella Renesto and Posenato 2003
G. †Moqisaurus Dong et al. 2023
Fm. †Mosasauridae Gervais 1852 [mosasaur]
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Invalid names: Clidastidae Cope 1869 [synonym], Edestosauridae Marsh 1876 [synonym], Globidensidae Dollo 1924 [synonym]
Superfm. †Mosasauroidea
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Invalid names: Ophidiomorpha Palci and Caldwell 2007 [synonym]
G. †Oculudentavis Xing et al. 2020
G. †Olindalacerta Evans and Yabumoto 1998
Subor. Ophidia Latreille 1804 [snake]
G. †Oxiella Evans 1998
G. †Paleochelco Martinelli et al. 2021
Unr. †Pangekkota Bauer 2020
G. †Paraplacosauriops Auge and Sullivan 2006
G. †Parasaurillus Evans and Searle 2002
G. †Parviraptor Evans 1994
G. †Pseudosaurillus Hoffstetter 1967
Unr. †Pythonomorpha Cope 1869
G. †Sauripes Lee et al. 2018
G. †Scandensia Evans and Barbadillo 1998
G. †Schillerosaurus Nydam et al. 2013
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Invalid names: Schilleria Evans and Chure 1999 [replaced]
Unr. Scincogekkonomorpha Sukhanov 1961
Superfm. †Scincoidea Oppel 1811
Unr. Scincomorpha Camp 1923
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Invalid names: Leptoglossa [synonym]
Unr. †Scleroglossa Estes et al. 1988
G. †Tedorosaurus Shikama 1967
Fm. †Trachelosauridae Broili 1917
G. †Yabeinosaurus Endo and Shikama 1942
Invalid names: Ameivoidea Fitzinger 1826 [empty], Araeoscelomorphi Hay 1930 [empty], Draconoidea Fitzinger 1826 [empty], Haplodontosaurus Gilmore 1942 [nomen dubium], Harpagosaurus excedens Gilmore 1928 [nomen dubium], Iguana haueri Meyer 1842 [nomen dubium], Lacertibaenia Vidal and Hedges [empty], Paikasisaurus Yadagiri 1986 [nomen dubium], Palaeophidae [empty], Panscincoidea Brownstein et al. 2022 [empty], Panxantusiidae Gauthier et al. 2012 [empty], Panxenosaurus Smith and Gauthier 2013 [empty], Thalattosauromorphi Hay 1930 [empty], Xestops gracilis Marsh 1872 [nomen dubium], Yabeinosaurus youngi Hoffstetter 1964 [nomen dubium], Zanclodontidae Marsh 1882 [empty]
G. †Steropoides Hitchcock 1845
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Steropoides divaricatus Hitchcock 1837
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Invalid names: Ornithopus loripes Hitchcock 1848 [synonym], Tridentipes insignis Hitchcock 1858 [synonym]
Steropoides diversus Hitchcock 1836
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Invalid names: Tridentipes elegans Hitchcock 1841 [synonym]
Steropoides infelix Hay 1902
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Invalid names: Tridentipes elegantior Hitchcock 1841 [synonym]
Steropoides ingens Hitchcock 1836
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Invalid names: Ornithoidichnites danae Hitchcock 1844 [synonym], Sillimanius adamsanus Hitchcock 1845 [synonym]
Steropoides uncus Hitchcock 1858
Invalid names: Steropezoum Hitchcock 1848 [synonym], Tridentipes Hitchcock 1858 [synonym]
Unr. †Streptosauria Cope 1869
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G. †Crymocetus Romer 1966
Unr. Testudinata Oppel 1811 [turtle]
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G. †Amblypus Hitchcock 1858
G. †Ancyropus Hitchcock 1845
Fm. †Australochelyidae Gaffney and Kitching 1994
G. †Australochelys Gaffney and Kitching 1994
G. †Chengyuchelys Young and Chow 1953
G. †Chinlechelys Joyce et al. 2009
G. †Emydhipus Fuentes Vidarte et al. 2003
G. †Helcura Hitchcock 1848
Unr. †Helochelydridae Nopcsa 1928
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Invalid names: Solemydidae Lapparent de Broin and Murelaga 1996 [objective synonym]
G. †Kallokibotion Nopcsa 1923
Unr. †Mesochelydia Joyce 2017
G. †Palaeochersis Rougier et al. 1995
Unr. †Paracryptodira Gaffney 1975
Unr. †Perichelydia Joyce 2017
G. †Platycheloides Haughton 1928
G. †Proganochelys Baur 1887
+
Invalid names: Psammochelys Quenstedt 1889 [synonym]
Fm. †Proterochersidae Nopcsa 1928
G. †Saltosauropus Bernier et al. 1984
G. †Siamochelys Tong et al. 2002
Or. Testudines Batsch 1788 [turtle]
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Invalid names: Chelonia Latreille 1800 [synonym], Chelonii Latreille 1800 [synonym]
G. †Testudinites Weiss 1830
Fm. Testudofiexoolithidae Hirsch 1996
Fm. Testudoolithidae Hirsch 1996
Unr. †Thalassochelydia Anquetin et al. 2017
Subor. Thecophora Dollo
Invalid names: Aplax oberndorferi Meyer 1843 [nomen dubium], Athecae Cope 1871 [empty], Chelonipedidae Sarjeant and Langston 1994 [empty], Chelycarapookus Warren 1969 [nomen dubium], Chelycarapookus arcuatus Warren 1969 [nomen dubium], Chelys blakii Mackie 1863 [nomen dubium], Chengyuchelyidae Yeh 1990 [empty], Emys neumayri Seeley 1881 [nomen dubium], Emys paranensis Burmeister 1885 [nomen nudum], Heckerochelyidae Sukhanov 2006 [empty], Megasternon Gray 1842 [nomen nudum], Mongolochelyidae Sukhanov and Pozdnjakov [empty], Odontochelyidae Li et al. 2008 [empty], Platemys sehuensis Ameghino 1889 [nomen dubium], Protochelys Lydekker 1889 [nomen dubium], Testudo elata Gervais 1877 [nomen dubium], Testudo stricklandi Phillips 1871 [nomen dubium], Tretosternon punctatum Owen 1842 [nomen dubium], Trionyx mammillaris Cope 1877 [nomen nudum]
Subcl. †Theromorpha Cope 1878
+
Subor. †Dromasauria Broom 1907
Unr. Eotherapsida Ivakhnenko 2003
Subor. †Styracocephalia Haughton 1929
Invalid names: Poliosauria Williston 1917 [empty], Protodonta Osborn 1888 [empty]
Subcl. †Tocosauria Haeckel 1866
+
Invalid names: Dichthacantha Haeckel 1866 [empty]
Invalid names: Atremata Hay 1930 [empty], Chelydosauria Cope 1898 [empty], Dipnoa Fitzinger 1826 [empty], Dravidosaurus Yadagiri and Ayyasami 1979 [nomen dubium], Dravidosaurus blanfordi Yadagiri and Ayyasami 1979 [nomen dubium], Enaliosauria Parkinson 1822 [empty], Holosauria Jaekel 1911 [empty], Hyperosauria Jaekel 1910 [empty], Ichthyosaurus inexpectatus Rusconi 1948 [nomen dubium], Lyognatha Jaekel 1910 [empty], Macelognatha Marsh 1884 [empty], Monotreta Hay 1930 [empty], Ornithocephala Bunzel 1870 [empty], Pessopteryx arctica Wiman 1910 [nomen dubium], Pessopteryx pinguis Wiman 1910 [nomen dubium], Placodontomorpha [empty], Plesiosaurus doedicomus Owen 1840 [nomen dubium], Proganosauromorpha Kuhn 1968 [empty], Proreptilia Haeckel 1876 [empty], Prosauria Gadow 1898 [empty], Protorosauria Jaekel 1910 [empty], Puercosaurus Williston 1916 [invalid subgroup], Puercosaurus obtusidens Williston 1916 [nomen dubium], Rhamphosauria Haeckel 1866 [empty], Saurichthys indicus de Koninck 1863 [nomen dubium], Saurophidia Gray [empty], Seps Laurenti 1768 [nomen oblitum], Svalbardosaurus Mazin 1981 [nomen dubium], Svalbardosaurus crassidens Mazin 1981 [nomen dubium]
Subcl. Synapsida Osborn 1903 [synapsid]
+
G. †Asaphestera Steen 1934
+
Asaphestera platyris Steen 1934
Invalid names: Asaphestera intermedia Dawson 1894 [nomen dubium]
Unr. †Caseasauria Williston 1912
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Fm. †Caseidae Williston 1911
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G. †Alierasaurus Romano and Nicosia 2014
G. †Angelosaurus Olson and Beerbower 1953
G. †Arisierpeton Reisz 2019
G. †Callibrachion Boule and Glangeaud 1893
G. †Casea Williston 1910
G. †Caseoides Olson and Beerbower 1953
G. †Caseopsis Olson 1962
G. †Chelichnus Jardine 1850
+
Invalid names: Herpetichnus Jardine 1850 [synonym]
G. †Cotylorhynchus Stovall 1937
G. †Datheosaurus Schroeder 1905
G. †Ennatosaurus Efremov 1956
G. †Eocasea Reisz and Fröbisch 2014
G. †Euromycter Reisz et al. 2011
G. †Lalieudorhynchus Werneburg et al. 2022
G. †Martensius Berman et al. 2020
G. †Oromycter Reisz 2005
G. †Phreatophasma Efremov 1954
G. †Ruthenosaurus Reisz et al. 2011
G. †Trichasaurus Williston 1913
+
Invalid names: Trispondylus Williston 1910 [replaced]
Fm. †Eothyrididae Romer and Price 1940
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G. †Eothyris Romer 1937
G. †Oedaleops Langston 1965
G. †Vaughnictis Brocklehurst et al. 2016
Fm. †Chelichnopodidae Lockley 2011
+
G. †Brasilichnium Leonardi 1981
+
Brasilichnium elusivum Leonardi 1981
Subor. †Eupelycosauria Kemp 1982
+
Fm. †Edaphosauridae Cope 1882
+
G. †Bohemiclavulus Spindler et al. 2019
G. †Edaphosaurus Cope 1882
+
Invalid names: Naosaurus Cope 1886 [synonym]
G. †Glaucosaurus Williston 1915
G. †Gordodon Lucas et al. 2018
G. †Ianthasaurus Reisz and Berman 1986
G. †Ramodendron Švestka 1943
G. †Remigiomontanus Spindler et al. 2019
Invalid names: Naosauridae Case 1907 [synonym], Naosaurus raymondi Case 1908 [nomen vanum]
Unr. †Haptodontiformes Spindler 2015
+
G. †Eohaptodus Spindler 2015
G. †Haptodus Gaudry 1886
G. †Hypselohaptodus Spindler 2015
G. †Kenomagnathus Spindler 2020
G. †Tenuacaptor Spindler 2015
Fm. †Ophiacodontidae Nopsca 1923 [ophiacodont]
+
G. †Archaeothyris Reisz 1972
G. †Baldwinonus Romer and Price 1940
G. †Clepsydrops Cope 1875
+
Invalid names: Archaeobelus Cope 1877 [synonym]
G. †Diopeus Cope 1892
G. †Elcabrosaurus Case 1907
G. †Ophiacodon Marsh 1878
+
Invalid names: Poliosaurus Case 1907 [synonym], Theropleura Cope 1878 [synonym], Winfieldia Romer 1925 [synonym]
G. †Stereophallodon Romer 1937
G. †Stereorhachis Gaudry 1880
G. †Varanosaurus Broili 1904
+
Invalid names: Poecilospondylus Case 1910 [synonym]
Invalid names: Clepsydropidae Cope 1878 [synonym], Poliosauridae Case 1907 [synonym]
Unr. †Sphenacomorpha Ivakhnenko 2003
+
Subor. †Sphenacodontia Romer and Price 1940
Fm. †Varanopidae Romer and Price 1940
+
G. †Apsisaurus Laurin 1991
G. †Archaeovenator Reisz and Dilkes 2003
G. †Ascendonanus Spindler et al. 2018
G. †Dendromaia Maddin et al. 2020
Unr. †Neovaranopsia Spindler et al. 2018
G. †Pyozia Anderson and Reisz 2004
Invalid names: Elliotsmithidae Broom 1937 [synonym], Mycterosaurinae Modesto et al. 2001 [empty], Thrausmosaurus Fox 1962 [invalid subgroup], Thrausmosaurus serratidens Fox 1962 [nomen dubium]
Or. †Pelycosauria Cope 1878 [pelycosaur]
+
G. †Echinerpeton Reisz 1972
+
Subor. †Edaphosauria Cope 1882
+
Invalid names: Glaucosauridae Huene 1925 [empty], Lupeosauridae Romer and Price 1940 [empty], Nitosauridae Romer and Price 1940 [empty]
G. †Lupeosaurus Romer 1936
+
Lupeosaurus kayi Romer 1937
G. †Milosaurus DeMar 1970
+
Milosaurus mccordi DeMar 1970
G. †Nitosaurus Romer 1937
+
Nitosaurus jacksonorum Romer 1937
Subor. †Ophiacodontia Romer and Price 1940
+
Invalid names: Tetraceratopsidae Kuhn 1964 [empty], Varanopoidea Romer and Price 1940 [empty]
G. †Protoclepsydrops Carroll 1964
+
Protoclepsydrops haplous Carroll 1964
G. †Xyrospondylus Reisz et al. 1982
+
Xyrospondylus ecordi Peabody 1957
Invalid names: Caseamorpha Kemp 1982 [empty]
Unr. Therapsida Broom 1905 [therapsid]
+
Or. †Anomodontia Owen 1859
+
Unr. †Anomocephaloidea Cisneros et al. 2011
G. †Anomocephalus Modesto et al. 1999
G. †Aulacocephalodon Seeley 1898
G. †Bainia Broom 1921
G. †Biseridens Li and Cheng 1997
Unr. †Chainosauria Nopcsa 1923
Fm. †Cryptodontidae Owen 1859
G. †Diaelurodon Broom 1911
Subor. †Dicynodontia Owen 1859 [dicynodont]
Or. †Dicynodontia Owen 1859 [dicynodont]
G. †Emydochampsa Broom 1912
G. †Neomegacyclops Boonstra 1953
G. †Prodicynodon Broom 1904
Subor. †Ulemicia Ivakhnenko 2003
Infraor. †Venyukovioidea Watson and Romer 1956
Invalid names: Biseridensidae Li and Cheng 1997 [invalid subgroup], Dicynodontiformes Hay 1930 [empty], Otsheriidae Tcshudinov 1960 [empty], Therosuchia Seeley 1895 [empty], Venyukovioidea Watson and Romer 1956 [empty]
Infraor. †Biarmosuchia Sigogneau-Russell 1989
+
G. †Biarmosuchus Chudinov 1960
+
Invalid names: Biarmosaurus Chudinov 1960 [synonym], Eotitanosuchus Tchudinov 1960 [synonym], Ivantosaurus Chudinov 1983 [synonym]
Unr. †Burnetiamorpha Broom 1923
G. †Herpetoskylax Sidor and Rubidge 2006
G. †Hipposaurus Haughton 1929
G. †Ictidorhinus Broom 1913
G. †Lycaenodon Broom 1925
+
Invalid names: Hipposauroides Boonstra 1952 [synonym]
G. †Wantulignathus Whitney and Sidor 2016
Invalid names: Biarmosuchidae Olson 1962 [empty], Hipposauridae Watson and Romer 1956 [empty], Rubidgina Broom 1942 [nomen dubium], Rubidgina angusticeps Broom 1942 [nomen dubium]
G. †Brontopus Heyler and Lessertisseur 1963
+
Brontopus antecursor Ellenberger 1983
+
Invalid names: Eocynodontipus sibleyrasi Ellenberger 1983 [synonym], Planipes brachydactylus Gand et al. 2000 [synonym], Planipes caudatus Demathieu and Gand 1995 [synonym], Pseudopithecopus recurvidigitus Ellenberger 1983 [synonym]
Brontopus giganteus Heyler and Lessertisseur 1963
+
Invalid names: Brontopus circagiganteus Gand et al. 2000 [synonym], Moschopus enormis Ellenberger 1983 [synonym]
Invalid names: Eocynodontipus Ellenberger 1983 [synonym], Moschopus Ellenberger 1983 [synonym], Pseudopithecopus Ellenberger 1983 [synonym]
Infraor. Cynodontia Owen 1861 [cynodont]
+
G. †Aelurosuchus Broom 1906
Fm. †Charassognathidae Kammerer 2016
Fm. †Chronoperatidae Fox et al. 1992
G. †Cromptodon Bonaparte 1972
G. †Dromatherium Emmons 1857
Fm. †Dviniidae Tatarinov 1968
Unr. Epicynodontia Hopson and Kitching 2001
G. †Gaumia Hahn et al. 1987
G. †Hahnia Godefroit and Battail 1997
G. †Hwanghocynodon Young 1979
G. †Kunminia Young 1947
Fm. †Madysauridae Tatarinov 2005
Unr. Mammaliamorpha Rowe 1988 [mammaliamorph]
G. Mitredon Shapiro and Jenkins 2001
G. †Nythosaurus Owen 1859
Fm. †Procynosuchidae Broom 1937
+
Invalid names: Silphedestidae Haughton and Brink 1954 [synonym]
Fm. †Therioherpetidae Battail 1991
+
Invalid names: Therioherpetodontidae Bonaparte and Barberena 1975 [synonym]
Fm. †Thrinaxodontidae Watson and Romer 1956
Invalid names: Cynognathidae [empty], Cynognathoidea Brink 1963 [empty], Gomphodontidae [empty], Masitisitherium Ellenberger 1970 [nomen nudum], Riograndidae Bonaparte et al. 2001 [empty]
G. †Dicynodontipus Rühle von Lilienstern 1944
+
Dicynodontipus bellambiensis Retallack 1996
Dicynodontipus geinitzi Hornstein 1876
Dicynodontipus hildburghausensis Rühle von Lilienstern 1944
Dicynodontipus penugnu da Silva et al. 2012
Invalid names: Calibarichnus Casamiquela 1964 [synonym], Gallegosichnus Casamiquela 1964 [synonym], Palaciosichnus Casamiquela 1964 [synonym], Rogerbaletichnus Casamiquela 1964 [synonym], Stipanicichnus Casamiquela 1975 [synonym]
G. †Eoraetia Dietrich 1937
+
Eoraetia siegerti Dietrich 1937
Subor. †Eotheriodontia Olson 1962
+
Infraor. †Phthinosuchia Romer 1961
Invalid names: Eotitanosuchia Boonstra 1963 [empty]
+
Subor. †Dinocephalia Seeley 1894
Unr. Neotherapsida Hopson 1999
Subor. †Gorgonopsia Seeley 1894
+
G. †Cerdodon Broom 1915
G. †Cyniscops Broom 1937
G. †Dixeya Haughton 1926
G. †Eriphostoma Broom 1911
+
Invalid names: Eoarctops Haughton 1929 [synonym], Galesuchus Haughton 1915 [synonym], Scylacognathus Broom 1913 [synonym]
Infraor. †Estemmenosuchida Ivakhnenko 2003
Infraor. †Gorgonopida Ivakhnenko 2003
Fm. †Gorgonopidae Lydekker 1890
Infraor. †Ictidorhinida Ivakhnenko 2003
G. †Karoopes Marchetti et al. 2019
Infraor. †Nikkasaurida Ivakhnenko 2008
G. †Nochnitsa Kammerer and Masyutin 2018
G. †Phorcys Kammerer and Rubidge 2022
G. †Viatkogorgon Tatarinov 1999
Invalid names: Broomisaurus planiceps Broom 1913 [nomen dubium], Cynarioides gracilis Broom 1930 [nomen dubium], Cyniscodon Broom 1905 [nomen dubium], Cyniscodon lydekkeri Broom 1905 [nomen dubium], Cynodraco Owen 1876 [nomen dubium], Cynodraco major Owen 1876 [nomen dubium], Cynodraco serridens Owen [nomen dubium], Galesuchidae Watson and Romer 1956 [empty], Hipposaurus kitchingi Broom 1948 [nomen dubium], Scylacognathus major Broom 1935 [nomen dubium], Watongiidae Sigogneau-Russell 1989 [empty]
G. †Moltenotetrapodiscus Ellenberger 1970
+
Moltenotetrapodiscus vetus Ellenberger 1970
G. †Raranimus Liu et al. 2009
+
Raranimus dashankouensis Liu et al. 2009
G. †Stathmodon Hennig 1922
G. †Tetraceratops Matthew 1908
+
Tetraceratops insignis Matthew 1908
Or. †Therocephalia Broom 1903
+
Fm. †Alopecodontidae Broom 1932
G. †Alopecorhinus Broom 1912
Subor. †Bauriida Broom 1911
Fm. †Crapartinellidae Mendrez 1975
Unr. †Eutherocephalia Hopson and Barghusen 1986
G. †Gorynychus Kammerer and Masyutin 2018
G. †Ictidognathus Broom 1911
Subor. †Lycosuchida Ivakhnenko 2011
G. †Mirotenthes Attridge 1956
Fm. †Pristerognathidae Broom 1908
Subor. †Pristerosaurida Tatarinov 2008
G. †Scylacoides Broom 1915
Subor. †Scylacosaurida Ivakhnenko 2011
G. †Scylacosaurus Broom 1903
+
Invalid names: Scylacorhinus Broom 1915 [synonym]
G. †Tigrisuchus Owen 1876
G. †Trochosuchus Broom 1908
G. †Yikezhaogia Li 1984
Invalid names: Alopecopsidae Haughton 1924 [empty], Arnognathus Broom 1907 [invalid subgroup], Arnognathus parvidens Broom 1907 [invalid subgroup], Euchambersiidae Boonstra 1934 [empty], Pristerosauria Hopson and Barghausen 1986 [empty], Regisauridae Hopson and Barghausen 1986 [empty], Simorhinellidae Mendrez 1975 [empty]
G. †Tricuspes von Huene 1933
+
Tricuspes sigogneauae Hahn 1994
Tricuspes tapeinodon Godefroit and Battail 1997
Tricuspes tuebingensis Huene 1933
Subor. †Tritylodontia Olson 1966
+
G. †Triglyphus Fraas 1866
Invalid names: Mucrotherium Huene 1933 [nomen dubium], Uniserium Huene 1933 [nomen dubium]
Invalid names: Novocynodon kutorgai Ivakhnenko 2012 [nomen dubium], Rubidginia Huene 1954 [empty]
Invalid names: Ophiacomorpha Ivakhnenko 2008 [empty], Protherosauria Osborn 1902 [replaced]
G. †Timanosaurus Gubin 1993
+
G. †Vitalia Ivakhnenko 1973
+
Vitalia grata Ivakhnenko 1973
Invalid names: Dicondylia Haeckel 1866 [empty], Euamniota Gardiner 1982 [empty], Monocondylia Haeckel 1866 [empty], Plagiaulax dawsoni Woodward 1891 [nomen dubium]
G. †Archeria Case 1918
+
Archeria crassidisca Cope 1884
+
Invalid names: Archeria robinsoni Case 1915 [synonym]
Archeria victori Stovall 1948
G. †Bathyglyptus Case 1911
+
Bathyglyptus theodori Case 1911
Or. †Captorhinomorpha Watson 1917
+
G. †Anomalopus Gilmore 1927
+
Anomalopus kablikae Geinitz 1882
Anomalopus sturdevanti Gilmore 1927
Anomalopus supaiensis Gilmore 1927
+
Invalid names: Ammobatrachus turbatans Gilmore 1928 [synonym]
G. †Asperipes Matthew 1903
+
Asperipes aduncus Branson 1910
Asperipes avipes Matthew 1903
Asperipes flexilis Matthew 1904
Or. †Bolosaurida Ivakhnenko 2008
+
Invalid names: Belebeyidae Ivakhnenko 2001 [empty]
+
Invalid names: Millerosauroidea [empty]
Fm. †Eosauravidae Kuhn 1961
+
G. †Eosauravus Williston 1910
+
Eosauravus copei Williston 1910
G. †Pseudobradypus Matthew 1903
+
Pseudobradypus caudifer Dawson 1895
Pseudobradypus unguifer Dawson 1872
G. †Steganoposaurus Branson and Mehl 1932
+
Steganoposaurus belli Branson and Mehl 1932
Invalid names: Eunotosauridae Nopcsa 1923 [empty], Paracaptorhinidae Huene 1956 [empty]
G. †Chamasaurus Williston 1915
+
Chamasaurus dolichognathus Williston 1915
Subor. †Conodectiformes Hay 1930
+
Fm. †Conodectidae Hay 1930
+
G. †Conodectes Cope 1896
+
Conodectes favosus Cope 1896
Invalid names: Desmospondylus Williston 1910 [synonym]
Unr. †Diadectomorpha Watson 1917
+
Fm. †Diadectidae Cope 1880
+
G. †Alveusdectes Liu and Bever 2015
+
Alveusdectes fenestratus Liu and Bever 2015
G. †Ambedus Kissel and Reisz 2004
+
Ambedus pusilus Kissel and Reisz 2004
G. †Animasaurus Case and Williston 1912
G. †Bolbodon Cope 1896
+
Bolbodon tenuitectus Cope 1896
G. †Chilonyx Cope 1883
+
Chilonyx rapidens Cope 1878
G. †Desmatodon Case 1908
+
Desmatodon hesperis Vaughn 1969
Desmatodon hollandi Case 1908
G. †Diadectes Cope 1878
+
Diadectes absitus Berman et al. 1998
Diadectes alatus Cope 1878
Diadectes carinatus Case and Williston 1912
Diadectes cretin Case 1911
Diadectes fissus Cope 1883
Diadectes lentus Marsh 1878
Diadectes molaris Cope 1878
+
Invalid names: Diadectes biculminatus Cope 1896 [synonym], Diadectes latibuccatus Cope 1878 [synonym], Diadectes phaseolinus Cope 1880 [synonym], Diadectes rapidens Cope 1878 [synonym], Empedias alatus Cope 1878 [synonym], Empedias fissus Cope 1883 [synonym], Empedocles molaris Cope 1878 [synonym], Helodectes isaaci Cope 1880 [synonym], Helodectes paridens Cope 1880 [synonym]
Diadectes tenuitectes Cope 1896
+
Invalid names: Diadectes huenei Broom 1914 [synonym], Diadectes maximus Case 1910 [synonym], Diadectoides cretin Case 1911 [synonym]
Diadectes tenuitectus Cope 1896
Diadectes zenos Case 1910
Invalid names: Empedocles Cope 1878 [synonym], Nothodon Marsh 1878 [synonym], Silvadectes Kissel 2010 [nomen nudum]
G. †Diadectoides Case 1911
G. †Diasparactus Case 1910
G. †Empedias Cope 1883
G. †Ichniotherium Pohlig 1892
+
Ichniotherium cottae Pohlig 1885
Ichniotherium gilmorei Haubold 1971
G. †Oradectes Kissel 2010
+
Oradectes sanmiguelensis Lewis and Vaughn 1965
G. †Orobates Berman et al. 2004
+
Orobates pabsti Berman et al. 2004
G. †Phanerosaurus Meyer 1860
+
Phanerosaurus naumanni Meyer 1860
Invalid names: Nothodontidae Marsh 1878 [synonym]
Subor. †Diadectoidea Romer 1956
+
Fm. †Stephanospondylidae Stappenbeck 1905
+
G. †Stephanospondylus Stappenbeck 1905
+
Stephanospondylus pugnax Geinitz and Deichmüller 1882
Invalid names: Diadecta Olson 1947 [synonym], Korynichniidae Lotze 1928 [empty]
Fm. †Limnoscelidae Williston 1911
+
G. †Limnoscelis Williston 1911
+
Limnoscelis dynatis Berman and Sumida 1990
Limnoscelis paludis Williston 1911
G. †Limnostygis Carroll 1967
+
Limnostygis relictus Carroll 1967
Fm. †Tseajaiidae Vaughn 1964
+
G. †Tseajaia Vaughn 1964
+
Tseajaia campi Vaughn 1964
Invalid names: Limnoscelops Lewis and Vaughn 1965 [nomen dubium], Limnoscelops longifemur Lewis and Vaughn 1965 [nomen dubium], Millerinidae Broom 1938 [empty]
G. †Gilmoreichnus Haubold 1971
+
Gilmoreichnus hermitanus Gilmore 1927
Subor. †Gymnarthriformes Hay 1930
+
Invalid names: Gymnarthria Case 1910 [replaced]
Subor. †Pantyliformes Hay 1930
+
Invalid names: Pantylosauria Case 1911 [replaced]
G. †Procolophonipus von Lilienstern 1939
+
G. †Tomicosaurus Case 1907
+
Tomicosaurus casei Hay 1930
+
G. †Doniceps Otschev and Rycov 1968
+
Doniceps lipovensis Otschev and Rykov 1968
Invalid names: Variodentidae Tatarinov 1964 [empty]
G. †Varanopus Moodie 1929
+
Varanopus curvidactylus Moodie 1929
+
Invalid names: Ichnium dolichodactylum Pabst 1908 [synonym]
Invalid names: Captorhiniformes Hay 1930 [empty], Datheosauri Jaekel 1911 [empty], Diadectiformes Hay 1930 [empty], Diadectosauria Case 1911 [empty], Labidosauria Williston [empty], Limnoscelia [empty], Pantyloidea Nopcsa 1928 [empty], Pareiasauriformes Hay 1930 [empty], Sauraviformes Hay 1930 [empty], Solenodonsauridae Broili 1924 [empty]
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Maximum body mass: 100000 kgg
Minimum body mass: 3 gg
Environment: brackish, freshwater, terrestrialuc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Created: 2017-04-17 15:15:19
Modified: 2017-04-17 15:15:19
Source: g = genus, c = class, subp = subphylum, uc = unranked clade
References: Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009, Witton 2008, Legendre 1988, Holman 2000, Greene 1997, Tchernov et al. 2000, Peczkis 1995, Haas 1979

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Ludlow to the top of the Holocene or 427.40000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 423.0 Ma

Collections (43403 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Ludlow427.4 - 423.0United Kingdom (Wales) Keilorites sp. (74805)
Mississippian358.9 - 323.2USA (Virginia) Dromopus aduncus (104796)
Tournaisian - Gzhelian358.9 - 298.9United Kingdom (Scotland) Pseudobradypus sp. (27703)
Bashkirian323.2 - 315.2United Kingdom (England) Lysorophus sp. (177139)
Pennsylvanian323.2 - 298.9USA (Massachusetts) Dromopus woodworthi (34780)
Pennsylvanian323.2 - 298.9USA (Wyoming) Steganoposaurus belli (197983)
Westphalian A318.7 - 316.9United Kingdom (England) Lysorophus sp. (175174)
Westphalian A318.7 - 316.9Canada (Nova Scotia) Leiocephalikon eutheton, Amblyodon problematicum, Hylerpeton dawsoni, Hylonomus latidens, Hylerpeton curtidentatum, Hylonomus lyelli, Hylonomus wymani, Protoclepsydrops haplous (28069) Trachystegos megalodon, Leiocephalikon problematicum, Hylonomus lyelli, Asaphestera intermedia (86946)
Westphalian A - Westphalian B318.7 - 314.6USA (Arizona) Elfridia bulbidens (92271)
Moscovian315.2 - 307.0USA (Illinois) Diabloroter bolti (201784)
Moscovian315.2 - 307.0Canada (Nova Scotia) Dendromaia unamakiensis (207132)
Westphalian C - Westphalian D314.6 - 307.5Canada (Nova Scotia) Paleothyris acadiana, Echinerpeton intermedium, Archaeothyris florensis, Clepsydrops sp., Limnostygis relictus (80111)
Westphalian D309.8 - 307.5USA (Illinois) Joermungandr bolti, Infernovenator steenae, Brachydectes newberryi, Cephalerpeton ventriarmatum (79598)
Westphalian D309.8 - 307.5Czech Republic (Pilsen) Sparodus validus, Coelostegus prothales, Hylonomus acuminatus, Brouffia orientalis, Archaeothyris sp., Amniota indet. (84835)
Westphalian D309.8 - 307.5USA (Ohio) Molgophis macrurus (178682 178696 178697 178698) Molgophis macrurus, Molgophis wheatleyi, Pleuroptyx clavatus, Cocytinus gyrinoides, Brachydectes newberryi, Carbonodraco lundi, Sauropleura longipes, Pelycosauria indet., Melanedaphodon hovaneci, Archaeothyris sp. (85292)
Stephanian307.5 - 300.4France (Bourgogne) Stereorhachis dominans (80716)
Stephanian307.5 - 300.4USA (Pennsylvania) Megamolgophis agostinii, Lysorophus dunkardensis (126535)
Stephanian307.5 - 300.4USA (Ohio) Molgophis macrurus (177046)
Stephanian307.5 - 300.4USA (West Virginia) Lysorophus dunkardensis (178677)
Stephanian - Virgilian307.5 - 298.9USA (Illinois) Lysorophus sp., Milosaurus mccordi (81114)