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Reptilia -

Pareiasauria was named by Seeley (1888) [Whether this taxon is extinct or not depends on exlusion or inclusion of turtles, respectively.]. It is not extant. It was considered monophyletic by Lee (1995) and Laurin and Reisz (1995).

It was synonymized subjectively with Cotylosauria by Osborn (1904); it was reranked as the order Pareiasauria by Huene (1954); it was reranked as the infraorder Pareiasauria by Haughton and Brink (1954); it was reranked as the unranked clade Pareiasauria by Lee (1995) and Laurin and Reisz (1995).

It was assigned to Anomodontia by Seeley (1888); to Theromorpha by Zittel (1890); to Therosuchia by Seeley (1895); to Cotylosauria by Case (1911); to Cotylosauria by Broom (1913); to Diadecta by Olson (1947); to Diadectimorpha by Haughton and Brink (1954); to Reptiliomorphoidea by Huene (1954); to Anapsida by Olson (1966); to Parareptilia by Olson (1962) and Gauthier et al. (1988); to Amniota by Gauthier et al. (1989); to Procolophonia by Laurin and Reisz (1995); to Pareiasauroidea by Lee (1995); and to Reptilia by Lee (2000).

  • Pareiasaurus strubeni was named by Broom (1924). Its type specimen is AMNH, a skeleton, and it is a 3D body fossil.

    It was recombined as Nochelesaurus strubeni by Haughton and Boonstra (1929); it was considered a nomen dubium by Lee (1997).
  • Pareiasaurus acutirostris was named by Broom (1913). Its type specimen is AMG 3748, a partial skull, and it is a 3D body fossil.

    It was considered a nomen dubium by Lee (1997).
  • Pareiasaurus steenkampensis was named by Seeley (1908). Its type specimen is BMNH R3770, R3669, a set of postcrania (9 osteoderms and 1 caudal vertebra), and it is a 3D body fossil.

    It was considered a nomen dubium by Lee (1997).
  • Pareiasaurus bombidens was named by Owen (1876). Its type specimen is BMNH R1714 (formerly 53525), a mandible, and it is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is Vers Fontein/Jan Willem Fontein, which is in a Capitanian floodplain sandstone/claystone in the Abrahamskraal Formation of South Africa.

    It was considered a nomen vanum by Lee (1997).
  • Pareiasaurus russouwi was named by Seeley (1892). Its type specimen is BMNH R1996, a partial skull (Right maxilla and part of right mandible), and it is a 3D body fossil.

    It was considered a nomen dubium by Lee (1997).
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1876Pareiasaurus bombidens Owen
1888Pareiasauria Seeley p. 106
1890Pareiosauria Zittel p. 449
1892Pareiasaurus russouwi Seeley
1895Pareiasauria Seeley
1908Pareiasaurus steenkampensis Seeley
1911Pareiasauria Case p. 9
1913Pareiasauria Broom
1913Pareiasaurus acutirostris Broom
1913Pareiasaurus bombidens Broom
1913Pareiasaurus russouwi Broom
1924Pareiasaurus strubeni Broom
1929Nochelesaurus strubeni Haughton and Boonstra p. 83
1947Pareiasauria Olson pp. 44, 45
1954Pareiasauria Haughton and Brink p. 3
1954Pareiasauria Huene p. 21
1962Pareiasauria Olson
1966Pareiasauria Olson p. 301
1988Pareiasauria Gauthier et al. p. 139 fig. 4.4
1989Pareiasauria Gauthier et al. p. 340
1995Pareiasauria Laurin and Reisz p. 172
1995Pareiasauria Lee pp. 508, 515 fig. 22
2000Pareiasauria Lee p. 71

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phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
superfamilyPareiasauroideaNopsca 1928

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

H. G. Seeley 1895Temporal vacuities of the skull roofed over as in Chelone; a large single (concave) occipital condyle; sphenoidal region short; transverse palatine processes directed out and forward. Teeth conical or with compressed cuspidate crowns, not divided into incisors, canines and molares. Ribs with the heads deep and occasionally divided.
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: terrestrialuc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Diet: herbivoresubo
Created: 2009-01-03 20:32:59
Modified: 2009-01-03 22:32:59
Source: subo = suborder, c = class, subp = subphylum, uc = unranked clade
References: Kiessling 2004, Benton 1983, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range: Late/Upper Severodvinian or 265.00000 to 254.00000 Ma

Collections (86 total)

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Roadian - Capitanian272.3 - 259.9Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul) Pareiasaurus americanus (171380 171381)
Wordian - Capitanian268.8 - 259.9Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul) Provelosaurus americanus (78657)
Tatarian268.0 - 252.3Russian Federation (Orenburg) Pareiasauria indet. (196164)
Capitanian265.1 - 259.9South Africa (Northern Cape) Bradysaurus sp. (181072) Pareiasaurus sp., Pareiasuchus sp. (176246)
Capitanian265.1 - 259.9South Africa (Western Cape) Brachypareia rogersi (176248) Bradysaurus angusta, Bradysaurus strubeni, Bradysaurus baini, Bradysaurus vanderbyli (86388) Bradysaurus baini (13004 93100 178115) Bradysaurus seeleyi, Bradysaurus baini (93085) Bradysaurus strubeni (89650) Bradysaurus vanderbyli (93088 93096) Embrithosaurus schwarzi (198028) Nochelesaurus alexanderi (197985) Pareiasauria indet. (176245) Pareiasaurus baini (92648) Pareiasaurus bombidens (26710 93084 93086) Platyoropha broomi (93097)
Capitanian - Wuchiapingian265.1 - 254.17South Africa (Western Cape) Bradysaurus seeleyi (177588)
Late/Upper Severodvinian265.0 - 254.0Russian Federation (Tatarstan) Proelginia permiana (80712)
Late/Upper Severodvinian265.0 - 254.0Russian Federation (Orenburg) Pareiasauridae indet. (93207) Proelginia permiana (189501 189505)
Early/Lower Severodvinian265.0 - 252.3Russian Federation (Kirov) Anthodon rossicus, Pareiasuchus vjatkensis, Anthodon chlynoviensis (28854)
Late/Upper Severodvinian - Early/Lower Vyatkian265.0 - 252.3Russian Federation (Tatarstan) Scutosaurus sp. (28855)
Late/Upper Severodvinian - Vyatkian265.0 - 252.3Russian Federation (Vologda) Elginiidae indet. (93025) Obirkovia gladiator (93016) Scutosaurus tuberculatus (187939)
Late/Upper Severodvinian - Vyatkian265.0 - 252.3Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk) Pareiosaurus karpinskii, Pareiosaurus elegans, Pareiosaurus horridus, Pareiosaurus tuberculatus, Scutosaurus karpinskii, Scutosaurus tuberculatus (28065) Scutosaurus karpinskii (27952)
Late/Upper Severodvinian - Vyatkian265.0 - 252.3Russian Federation (Vladimir) Scutosaurus sp., Elginiidae indet. (93026)
Late/Upper Severodvinian - Vyatkian265.0 - 252.3Russian Federation (Orenburg) Elginiidae indet. (93030) Pareiasauria indet. (179653) Pareiasauridae indet. (180868 189495 189571) Scutosaurus sp., Elginiidae indet. (93027)
Severodvinian - Vyatkian265.0 - 252.3Russian Federation (Orenburg) Pareiasauridae indet. (86484)
Wuchiapingian259.9 - 254.17Tanzania (Ruvuma) Anthodon minusculus (171379) Pareiasauria indet. (178128)
Wuchiapingian259.9 - 254.17South Africa (Eastern Cape) Anthodon serrarius (176504) Nanoparia luckhoffi, Pareiasaurus rubidgei (171384) Nanoparia pricei (171376) Pareiasaurus serridens, Pareiasuchus nasicornis (80826)
Wuchiapingian259.9 - 254.17South Africa (Western Cape) Pareiasaurus serridens (22661 180462) Pareiasaurus serridens, Pareiasauria indet., Pareiasuchus peringueyi, Propappus parvus (171377)
Wuchiapingian259.9 - 254.17Zambia Pareiasauria indet. (184660 184661 184662) Propappus omocratus (184600)
Wuchiapingian259.9 - 254.17South Africa (Northern Cape) Pareiasaurus sp. (190568)
Wuchiapingian259.9 - 254.17Germany (Hesse) Parasaurus geinitzi (81115 84836 93036)
Wuchiapingian259.9 - 254.17South Africa (Graaff-Reinet) Anthodon serrarius (171378)
Wuchiapingian259.9 - 254.17China (Henan) Tsiyuania simplicidentata, Honania complicidentata, Taihangshania imperfacta (92909)
Wuchiapingian259.9 - 254.17Zambia (Eastern) Pareiasuchus nasicornis (86257)
Wuchiapingian259.9 - 254.17Morocco (Marrakech-Tensift-Al Haouz) Arganaceras vacanti, Pareiasauria indet. (89607)
Lopingian259.9 - 252.17China (Nei Mongol) Elginia wuyongae (194384)
Lopingian259.9 - 252.17Italy (Trentino-Alto Adige) Pachypes dolomiticus (188750)
Wuchiapingian - Changhsingian259.9 - 252.17South Africa (Eastern Cape) Anthodon nesemanni (177601) Pareiasaurus serridens (80174 114905 176336 177563)
Wuchiapingian - Changhsingian259.9 - 252.17Morocco (Argana) Pachypes sp. (197303)
Wuchiapingian - Changhsingian259.9 - 252.17South Africa (Northern Cape) Nanoparia luckhoffi (178275)
Wuchiapingian - Changhsingian259.9 - 252.17South Africa (Western Cape) Pareiasaurus serridens (80176 89859)
Vyatkian259.0 - 252.3Russian Federation (Vladimir) Elginiidae indet., Obirkovia sp. (86346)
Zechstein259.0 - 252.3Germany (Thuringia) Parasaurus geinitzi (85564 85565)
Zechstein259.0 - 252.3Germany (Hesse) Parasaurus geinitzi (85489)
Zechstein259.0 - 252.3South Africa (Northern Cape) Pareiasaurus pulcher (34816)
Zechstein259.0 - 252.3Germany (Lower Saxony) Parasaurus geinitzi (85561)
Changhsingian254.17 - 252.17United Kingdom (Scotland) Elginia mirabilis, Gordonia sp. (92323)
Changhsingian254.17 - 252.17Niger (Agadez) Bunostegos akokanensis (68054)
Changhsingian254.17 - 252.17China (Shanxi) Huanghesaurus liulinensis, Shansisaurus xuecunensis (92907) Pareiasauria indet., Shihtienfenia permica (93536) Pareiasauridae indet., Sanchuansaurus pygmaeus, Shansisaurus xuecunensis, Shihtienfenia permica, Shansisaurus sp. (78694)