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Ornithurae

Reptilia - Avetheropoda

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1866Ornithurae Haeckel p. CXL
1934Ornithurae Swinton p. 1
1984Ornithurae Martin p. 146
1986Ornithurae Gauthier p. 11
1991Ornithurae Chatterjee p. 327
1994Ornithurae Chiappe and Calvo p. 239 fig. 1
1997Ornithurae Hou
1997Ornithurae Sereno p. 444
1998Ornithurae Sereno p. 65
1999Ornithurae Ji et al. p. 5
1999Ornithurae Sereno p. 2139 fig. 2
2001Ornithurae Norell and Clarke p. 181
2002Ornithurae Chatterjee p. 128
2002Ornithurae Chiappe p. 451 fig. 20.1
2004Ornithurae Clarke p. 20
2004Ornithurae Padian p. 212
2004Ornithurae Senter et al. p. 2 fig. 2
2005Ornithurae Clarke et al. p. 307
2006Ornithurae You et al. p. 1643 figs. Fig. 3
2006Ornithurae Zhou and Zhang p. 79
2007Ornithurae Livezey and Zusi p. 89
2007Ornithurae Martin and Cordes-Person p. 229
2010Ornithurae Tykoski and Fiorillo p. 288
2013Ornithurae Kurochkin et al.
2014Ornithurae Wang et al.
2017Ornithurae McLachlan et al. p. 3
2018Ornithurae Huang et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
RankNameAuthor
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Saurischia()
Theropoda()
Neotheropoda
AverostraPaul 2002
Tetanurae
orderAvetheropoda
suborderCoelurosauria
Maniraptora
Paraves
classAves
PygostyliaChiappe 2002
Ornithothoraces
OrnithuromorphaChiappe et al. 1999
subclassOrnithurae
subclassOrnithurae

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
S. Chatterjee 1991Synapomorphies of the Ornithurae
The Ornithurae are considered to form a monophyletic group on the basis of the following four synapomorphies: (23) nasals do not meet broadly but are separated anteriorly by the intervening premaxillae; (24) the nasal process of premaxilla extends posteriorly to the level of lacrimals; (25) presence of ossified mesethmoid.
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatiteo
Entire body: yeso
Adult length: 10 to < 100o
Adult width: 1.0 to < 10o
Adult height: 1.0 to < 10o
Architecture: compact or denseo
Ontogeny: accretion, modification of partso
Grouping: solitaryo
Environment: terrestrialo
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: ground dwellingo
Diet: carnivoresubo
Reproduction: oviparouso
Dispersal: direct/internalo
Dispersal 2: mobileo
Created: 2009-01-03 20:39:15
Modified: 2009-01-03 22:39:15
Source: subo = suborder, o = order
References: Kiessling 2004, Benton 1983, Marsh 1875

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Kungurian to the top of the Holocene or 279.30000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 272.3 Ma

Collections (1766 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Kungurian279.3 - 272.3Russian Federation Sylvia sp. 1 (30384)
Berriasian145.0 - 139.8Romania (Judetul Bihor) Hesperornithiformes indet. (13335)
Early/Lower Hauterivian136.4 - 130.0France Gallornis straeleni (61563)
Barremian - Aptian129.4 - 113.0Thailand (Kalasin) Ornithurae indet. (84443)
Early/Lower Aptian125.45 - 122.46China (Liaoning) Ornithurae indet. (118207)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0China (Liaoning) Archaeovolans repatriatus (55708) Changzuiornis ahgmi (194604)
Late/Upper Albian105.3 - 99.6United Kingdom (England) Enaliornis barretti, Enaliornis sedgwicki (85289)
Late/Upper Cretaceous100.5 - 66.0USA (Kansas) Hesperornis gracilis (156590) Lestornis crassipes (156589)
Middle Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Canada (Saskatchewan) Hesperornithiformes indet., Ichthyornis sp. (22731) Ichthyornis sp. B, Pasquiaornis hardiei, Pasquiaornis tankei, Ichthyornis sp., Aves indet. (52997)
Middle Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Russian Federation (Volgograd) Aves indet. (92399)
Middle Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5USA (Kansas) Baptornithidae indet., Ichthyornithes indet. (94538)
Turonian93.9 - 89.8Canada (Nunavut) Tingmiatornis arctica (45559)
Turonian - Coniacian93.9 - 86.3Argentina (Neuquén) Neornithes indet. (118307)
Early/Lower Turonian93.5 - 89.3Canada (Alberta) Ichthyornis sp. (125729)
Late/Upper Turonian93.5 - 89.3USA (New Mexico) Ichthyornis sp. (84547)
Middle Turonian - Late/Upper Turonian93.5 - 89.3Uzbekistan (Navoi) Ichthyornis maltshevskyi, Neornithes indet., Ichthyornis minusculus (58168) Kuszholia mengi (170147) Kuszholia sp. (58172)
Coniacian89.8 - 86.3USA (Kansas) Baptornis advenus (85282)
Coniacian - Santonian89.8 - 83.6Japan Chupkaornis keraorum (193939)
Coniacian - Santonian89.8 - 83.6USA (Kansas) Baptornis advenus (85278) Ichthyornis celer (85294) Ichthyornis dispar, Colonosaurus mudgei (85276)
Coniacian - Campanian89.8 - 72.1USA (Alaska) Hesperornis sp. (123520)