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Testudines (turtle)

Reptilia - Testudines

Testudines was named by Batsch (1788) [used as the plural of Testudo by Linnaeus and not as a proper higher order name: see Dundee 1989]. It is extant. It was considered monophyletic by Joyce (2007) and Danilov and Parham (2008) and Pérez-García and Murelaga (2013).

It was reranked as the subclass Testudines by Benton (1985); it was reranked as the unranked clade Testudines by Laurin and Reisz (1995) and Li et al. (2008).

It was assigned to Chelonomorpha by Kuhn (1966); to Amniota by Benton (1985); to Testudinomorpha by Laurin and Reisz (1995); to Anapsida by Gauthier et al. (1989) and Peng et al. (2001); to Testudinata by Li et al. (2008); to Testudinata by Joyce (2007), Danilov and Parham (2008), Sterli (2008), Pérez-García and Murelaga (2013) and Perea et al. (2014); and to Reptilia by Holman and Case (1988), Shoshani et al. (1989), Frank and Ramus (1996), Weems and George (2001), Pearson et al. (2002), Meyer and Zardoya (2003), Parham and Pyenson (2010), Garcia et al. (2016) and Turvey et al. (2017).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1788Testudines Batsch
1800Chelonii Latreille
1842Chelone obovata Owen p. 170
1847Apholidemys Pomel
1854Chelonia Mantell p. 646
1861Chelonia Owen p. 314
1865Chelone sopita Leidy p. 104
1866Chelonia Haeckel p. CXXXVIII
1868Osteopygis sopita Cope p. 147
1870Propleura sopita Cope p. 140
1882Chelonii Quenstedt p. 145
1884Apholidemys Cope
1886Chelonia Günther p. 445
1895Podocnemis lata Ristori
1898Chelonia Gadow p. 20
1898Chelonia Woodward p. 141
1902Osteopygis sopitus Hay
1904Chelonia Case p. 60
1906Chelonia Andrews p. 275
1908Osteopygis sopitus Hay p. 149 figs. figs. 181-184
1908Chelonia Lambe
1909Platychelone Dollo p. 105
1909Platychelone emarginata Dollo p. 105
1913Chelonia Broom p. 364
1934Apertotemporalis Stromer
1934Apertotemporalis baharijensis Stromer
1934Chelonia Swinton p. 70
1947Chelonia Olson pp. 44, 45
1954Chelonia Haughton and Brink p. 3
1955Euclastochelys Bergounioux
1955Euclastochelys interrupta Bergounioux
1958Temnoclemmys cordiformis Bergounioux
1958Pleurosternum obovata Delair p. 49
1966Senonemys suemegensis Bohn
1966Testudines Kuhn p. 20
1973Trionyx tshelkarensis Chkhikvadze
1974Trionyx fuchienensis Yeh
1979Sokotochelys Halstead
1979Sokotochelys lawanbungudui Halstead
1979Sokotochelys umarumohammedi Halstead
1981Chelonia Thurmond and Jones p. 114
1982Chelonia Gardiner p. 228
1985Testudines Benton p. 153
1988Apertotemporalis Carroll
1988Chelonia Carroll
1988Sokotochelys Carroll
1988Padiochelys Carroll p. 616
1988Testudines Holman and Case p. 328
1989Testudines Gauthier et al. p. 343
1989Chelonia Gauthier et al. p. 344
1989Testudines Shoshani et al. p. 436
1993Chelonia Cvancara and Hoganson p. 15
1995Testudines Laurin and Reisz p. 172
1995Chelonia Lee pp. 508, 515 fig. 22
1996Testudines Frank and Ramus
2001Testudines Peng et al. p. 23
2001Testudines Weems and George p. 572
2002Testudines Pearson et al. p. 154
2002Chelonia Sepkoski, Jr.
2003Testudines Meyer and Zardoya
2007Testudines Joyce
2008Testudines Danilov and Parham
2008Testudines Li et al. p. 500
2008Testudines Sterli p. 286
2010Testudines Parham and Pyenson p. 232
2010Meiolania damelipi White et al. p. 1
2013Testudines Pérez-García and Murelaga
2014Testudines Perea et al.
2015Meiolania damelipi Rhodin et al.
2016Testudines Garcia et al.
2017Testudines Turvey et al.

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phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
Testudinata(Oppel 1811)
orderTestudinesBatsch 1788
orderTestudinesBatsch 1788

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

R. Owen 1861 (Chelonia)Trunk-ribs broad, flat, suturally united, forming, with their vertebra, the sternum, and dermal bones, an expanded thoracic-abdominal case, into which the limbs, tail, and, usually, the head, can be withdrawn. No teeth: external nostril single.