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Polycotylidae

Reptilia - Sauropterygia - Polycotylidae

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1897Cimoliasaurus leucoscopelus Etheridge, Jr. p. 19 figs. Pls. 5-7
1908Polycotylidae Williston
1911Polycotylus brevispondylus Bogolubov p. 317 figs. 11, figs 1-2
1911Polycotylus ichthyospondylus tanais Bogolubov p. 321 figs. pl. 9, figs 1-3
1940Polycotylidae White p. 465 fig. 10a
1943Polycotylidae Welles p. 212
1946Polycotylidae Kuhn p. 59
1960Polycotylidae Delair p. 69
1962Dolichorhynchopidae Welles p. 4
1963Polycotylidae Persson p. 6
1963Polycotylus brevispondylus Persson p. 21
1963Polycotylus ichthyospondylus tanais Persson p. 21
1968Polycotylidae Thurmond p. 1289
1981Polycotylidae Thurmond and Jones p. 141
1991Trinacromerum leucoscopelus Molnar p. 632
1996Polycotylidae Carpenter p. 267
2001Polycotylidae O'Keefe p. 19 fig. 20
2004Polycotylidae O'Keefe p. 336 figs. Fig. 11
2005Polycotylidae Buchy et al. p. 99
2005Polycotylidae Schumacher and Everhart p. 40
2007Polycotylidae Schumacher p. 134
2008Polycotylidae O'Keefe p. 665
2010Polycotylidae Ketchum and Benson p. 15
2011Polycotylidae Ketchum and Benson p. 126
2014Polycotylidae Benson and Druckenmiller figs. 2-3

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
OlfactoresJefferies 1991
subphylumVertebrata
Gnathostomata()
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
RankNameAuthor
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
orderSauropterygia
Pistosauria(Baur 1890)
Plesiosauria(de Blainville 1835)
superfamilyPlesiosauroideaWelles 1943
Cryptoclidia
Xenopsaria
Leptocleidia
familyPolycotylidaeWilliston 1908
familyPolycotylidaeWilliston 1908

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
S. W. Williston 1908Skull with long facial rostrum and thin, high parietal crest. Supraoccipital bones separated. Palate with large interpterygoidal vacuity, the pterygoids articulating with vomers, and meeting in the middle line posteriorly; no palatine foramina. Neck but little longer than head, the vertebrae all short; ribs single headed. Coracoids meeting throughout in symphysis, with long clavicular processes articulating with clavicles and scapulae, the interclavicle present; a large interclavicular foramen; ischia elongate. Three or four epipodial bones, all broader than long. Colorado Cretaceous, North America.
T. E. White 1940"Dolicocephalic; 19 to 26 cervical vertebrae, 28 to 30 dorsals, 3 sacrals, 25 caudals; cervical ribs single-headed; posterolateral Dolicocephalic; 19 to 26 cervical vertebrae, 28 to 30 dorsals, 3 sacrals, 25 caudals; cervical ribs single-headed; posterolateral."
K. Carpenter 1996Plesiosaurs with large skulls and short necks as in Pliosauridae; long facial rostrum with long mandibular symphysis; high sagittal crest; 4-7 pairs of premaxillary teeth; teeth conical, more uniform in size than in Pliosauridae, none caniniform; pterygoids flat, plate-like underlying most of the basicranium except for long and slender interpterygoid vacuity; 19-26 cervicals; cervical ribs single-headed; epipodials short and wide.
F. R. O'Keefe 2001"Neck length short; ischium longer than pubis; maxillary/squamosal sutuer present and formed by posterior expansion of maxilla; pterygoids with distinct medial processes which meet behind posterior interpterygoid vacuities; pterygoids dished lateral to posterior interpterygoid vacuities; mandibular symphysis scoop-like or long; splenial included in mandibular symphysis; number of cervical vertebrae reduced; longitudinal pectoral bar present and formed by clavicle and coracoid; posterior perforations in coracoid; supernumerary ossifications in propodial and epipodial rows; interlocking phalanges anterior to fifth digit."