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Sauria (crown diapsid)

Reptilia

Taxonomy
Sauria was named by Gauthier (1984) [non MacCartney 1802]. It is extant. It was considered monophyletic by Gauthier et al. (1988) and deBraga and Rieppel (1997).

It was assigned to Diapsida by Gauthier et al. (1988) and Gauthier et al. (1989); to Reptilia by Norell and de Queiroz (1991); and to Neodiapsida by deBraga and Rieppel (1997) and Senter (2004).

Sister taxa
Choristodera (syn. Champsosauria, Simoedosauria), Lepidosauromorpha

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1984Sauria Gauthier
1988Sauria Gauthier et al. p. 139 fig. 4.4
1989Sauria Gauthier et al. p. 343 fig. 9
1991Sauria Norell and de Queiroz
1997Sauria deBraga and Rieppel pp. 286, 314 fig. 1
2004Sauria Senter p. 260

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1874
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
subclassSarcopterygii()
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda
Reptiliomorpha
RankNameAuthor
Anthracosauria
subclassAmphibiosauriaKuhn 1967
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
SauriaGauthier 1984

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Unr. Sauria Gauthier 1984 [crown diapsid]
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G. †Antarcticoolithus Legendre et al. 2020
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Antarcticoolithus bradyi Legendre et al. 2020
Unr. †Choristodera Cope 1876 [choristodere]
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G. †Coeruleodraco Matsumoto et al. 2019
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Coeruleodraco jurassicus Matsumoto et al. 2019
Fm. †Cteniogenyidae Seiffert 1975
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G. †Cteniogenys Gilmore 1928
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Cteniogenys antiquus Gilmore 1928
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Invalid names: Cteniogenys reedi Seiffert 1975 [synonym]
G. †Heishanosaurus Dong et al. 2020
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Heishanosaurus pygmaeus Dong et al. 2020
G. †Hyphalosaurus Gao et al. 1999
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Hyphalosaurus baitaigouensis Ji et al. 2004
Hyphalosaurus lingyuanensis Gao et al. 1999
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Invalid names: Sinohydrosaurus lingyuanensis Li et al. 1999 [objective synonym]
Invalid names: Sinohydrosaurus Li et al. 1999 [objective synonym]
G. †Irenosaurus Efimov 1988
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Irenosaurus egloni Efimov 1983
G. †Khurendukhosaurus Sigogneau-Russell and Efimov 1984
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Khurendukhosaurus orlovi Sigogneau-Russell and Efimov 1984
Invalid names: Khurendukhosaurus bajkalensis Efimov 1996 [nomen dubium]
G. †Lazarussuchus Hecht 1992
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Lazarussuchus dvoraki Evans and Klembara 2005
G. †Monjurosuchus Endo 1940
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Monjurosuchus manchoukuoensis Zhou and Wang 2010
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Invalid names: Rhynchosaurus orientalis Endo and Shikama 1942 [synonym]
Subor. †Neochoristodera Evans and Hecht 1993
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Fm. †Champsosauridae Cope 1876 [champsosaur]
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G. †Champsosaurichnus Lockley and Hunt 1995
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Champsosaurichnus parfeti Lockley and Hunt 1995
G. †Eotomistoma Young 1964
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G. †Champsosaurus Cope 1876
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Champsosaurus gigas Erickson 1972
Champsosaurus lindoei Gao and Fox 1998
Champsosaurus natator Parks 1933
Champsosaurus norelli Brownstein 2022
Champsosaurus tenuis Erickson 1981
Invalid names: Champsosaurus annectens Cope 1876 [nomen vanum], Champsosaurus australis Cope 1881 [nomen vanum], Champsosaurus brevicollis Cope 1876 [nomen vanum], Champsosaurus inelegans Parks 1933 [nomen vanum], Champsosaurus inflatus Parks 1933 [nomen vanum], Champsosaurus profundus Cope 1876 [nomen vanum], Champsosaurus puercensis Cope 1882 [nomen vanum], Champsosaurus saponensis Cope 1882 [nomen vanum], Champsosaurus vaccinsulensis Cope 1876 [nomen vanum]
G. †Ikechosaurus Sigogneau-Russell 1981
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Ikechosaurus gaoi Lü et al. 1999
Ikechosaurus magnus Efimov 1979
Ikechosaurus sunailinae Sigogneau-Russell 1981
Fm. †Simoedosauridae Lemone 1884
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G. †Kosmodraco Brownstein 2022
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Kosmodraco dakotensis Erickson 1987
Kosmodraco magnicornis Brownstein 2022
G. †Liaoxisaurus Gao et al. 2005
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Liaoxisaurus chaoyangensis Gao et al. 2005
G. †Simoedosaurus Gervais 1877
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Invalid names: Simoedosaurus lemoinei Gervais 1877 [nomen dubium], Simoedosaurus peroni Lemoine 1884 [nomen dubium], Simoedosaurus remensis Lemoine 1884 [nomen dubium], Simoedosaurus suessonniensis Lemoine 1884 [nomen dubium]
G. †Tchoiria Efimov 1975
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Tchoiria klauseni Ksepka et al. 2005
Tchoiria namsarai Efimov 1975
Invalid names: Champsosauriformes Hay 1930 [replaced]
G. †Novapes Lee et al. 2020
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Novapes ulsanensis Lee et al. 2020
G. †Pachystropheus von Huene 1935
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Pachystropheus rhaeticus von Huene 1935
G. †Philydrosaurus Gao and Fox 2005
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Philydrosaurus proseilus Gao and Fox 2005
G. †Shokawa Evans and Manabe 1999
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Shokawa ikoi Evans and Manabe 1999
Invalid names: Champsosauria Jaekel 1910 [synonym], Hyphalosauridae Gao and Fox 2005 [empty], Monjurosuchidae Endo 1940 [empty], Simoedosauria Dollo [synonym]
Unr. Lepidosauromorpha Benton 1983
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G. †Anisodontosaurus Welles 1947
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Anisodontosaurus greeri Welles 1947
G. †Blomosaurus Tatarinov 1978
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Blomosaurus ivachnenkoi Tatarinov 1978
G. †Coartaredens Spencer and Storrs 2002
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Coartaredens isaaci Spencer and Storrs 2002
G. †Feralisaurus Cavicchini et al. 2020
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Feralisaurus corami Cavicchini et al. 2020
G. †Fraxinisaura Schoch and Sues 2018
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Fraxinisaura rozynekae Schoch and Sues 2018
G. †Kudnu Bartholomai 1979
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Kudnu mackinlayi Bartholomai 1979
Superor. Lepidosauria Haeckel 1866 [lepidosaur]
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G. †Cargninia Bonaparte et al. 2010
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Cargninia enigmatica Bonaparte et al. 2010
G. †Dolichopodus Gilmore 1926
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G. †Euposaurus Jourdan 1862
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Euposaurus thiolleri Lortet 1892
Euposaurus thiollierei Lortet 1892
Invalid names: Euposaurus cerinensis Lortet 1892 [nomen dubium], Euposaurus lorteti Lortet 1892 [nomen dubium]
G. †Lacertoidopus Ellenberger 1970
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Lacertoidopus sociabilis Ellenberger 1970
Or. †Millerosauria Watson 1957
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Invalid names: Broomiidae Nopcsa 1923 [empty], Mesenosauridae [empty]
Or. †Pleurosauria Fitzinger 1843
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Invalid names: Acrosauria Meyer [synonym]
Or. †Prolacertilia Huene 1954
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Subor. †Prolacertoidea Camp 1923
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Invalid names: Macrocnemoidea Kuhn 1946 [synonym], Priceidae Kuhn 1961 [empty]
Subor. †Tanysitrachelia Peyer 1931
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Invalid names: Tanysitrachelidae Kuhn 1946 [empty]
Invalid names: Trachelosauria Broili 1917 [empty]
Or. Rhynchocephalia Günther 1867 [rhynchocephalian]
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Subor. †Clarazisauria Hoffstetter 1955
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Invalid names: Claraziidae Peyer 1936 [empty]
G. †Colobops Pritchard et al. 2018
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Colobops noviportensis Pritchard et al. 2018
G. †Eifelosaurus Jaekel 1904
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Eifelosaurus triadicus Jaekel 1904
Fm. †Gephyrosauridae Evans 1980
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G. †Deltadectes Whiteside et al. 2017
G. †Gephyrosaurus Evans 1980
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Gephyrosaurus evansae Whiteside and Duffin 2017
G. †Hamatopus Lilienstern 1939
G. †Vadasaurus Bever and Norell 2017
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Vadasaurus herzogi Bever and Norell 2017
Invalid names: Pachystropheidae Kuhn 1961 [empty], Sauranodontes Lortet 1892 [empty], Sphenodontiformes Hay 1930 [empty], Tholodontidae Kuhn [empty]
G. †Sauroeidepus Ellenberger 1970
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Sauroeidepus matsepensis Ellenberger 1970
Sauroeidepus quthingensis Ellenberger 1970
Unr. Sphenodontia Jaekel 1910
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G. †Diphydontosaurus Whiteside 1986
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Diphydontosaurus avonis Whiteside 1986
Infraor. †Eusphenodontia Herrera-Flores et al. 2018
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Fm. †Clevosauridae Fraser 1993
G. †Lanceirosphenodon de Vivar et al. 2020
G. †Microsphenodon Chambi-Trowell et al. 2021
Unr. †Neosphenodontia Herrera-Flores et al. 2018
G. †Opisthiamimus DrMar Jr. et al. 2022
G. †Polysphenodon Jaeckel 1911
G. †Godavarisaurus Evans et al. 2001
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Godavarisaurus lateefi Evans et al. 2001
G. †Lamarquesaurus Apesteguía and Rougier 2007
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Lamarquesaurus cabazai Apesteguía and Rougier 2007
G. †Micromenodon Sues and Schoch 2021
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Micromenodon pitti Sues and Schoch 2021
G. †Opisthias Gilmore 1909
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Opisthias rarus Gilmore 1909
G. †Pelecymala Fraser 1986
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Pelecymala robustus Fraser 1986
G. †Planocephalosaurus Fraser 1982
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Planocephalosaurus lucasi Heckert 2004
G. †Rebbanasaurus Evans et al. 2001
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Rebbanasaurus jaini Evans et al. 2001
G. †Sphenocondor Apesteguia et al. 2012
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Sphenocondor gracilis Apesteguia et al. 2012
G. †Tingitana Evans and Sigogneau-Russell 1997
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Tingitana anoualae Evans and Sigogneau-Russell 1997
G. †Whitakersaurus Heckert et al. 2008
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Whitakersaurus bermani Heckert et al. 2008
Invalid names: Homoeosauria Jaekel 1910 [synonym], Sauranodonti Marsh 1879 [empty], Sphenodonta [synonym]
Fm. Sphenodontidae Cope 1871
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G. †Ankylosphenodon Reynoso 2000
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Subfm. †Brachyrhinodontinae Huene 1948
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Invalid names: Palacrodontinae Haughton 1924 [synonym]
G. †Cynosphenodon Reynoso 1996
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G. †Derasmosaurus Barbera and Macuglia 1988
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Derasmosaurus pietrarojae Barbera and Macuglia 1988
G. †Elachistosuchus Janensch 1949
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Elachistosuchus huenei Janensch 1949
G. †Glevosaurus Swinton 1939
G. †Leptosaurus Fitzinger 1837
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Leptosaurus neptunius Goldfuss 1831
Leptosaurus pulchellus Zittel 1887
G. †Oenosaurus Rauhut et al. 2012
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Oenosaurus muehlheimensis Rauhut et al. 2012
Unr. †Opisthodontia Apesteguía and Novas 2003
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G. †Alamitosphenos Agnolín et al. 2023
Subfm. †Eilenodontinae Rasmussen and Callison 1981
G. †Fraserosphenodon Herrera-Flores et al. 2018
G. †Kawasphenodon Apesteguía 2005
G. †Priosphenodon Apesteguía and Novas 2003
G. †Sphenotitan Martinez et al. 2013
G. †Trullidens Kligman et al. 2021
G. †Paleollanosaurus Heckert 2004
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Paleollanosaurus fraseri Heckert 2004
G. †Piocormus Wagner 1852
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Piocormus laticeps Wagner 1852
G. †Scharschengia Huene 1940
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G. †Sigmala Fraser 1986
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Sigmala sigmala Fraser 1986
G. †Simila
G. Sphenodon Gray 1831
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Sphenodon guentheri Gunther 1867 [Brother island tuatara]
Sphenodon punctata Gray 1842 [tuatara]
Subfm. Sphenodontinae Cope 1871
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G. †Navajosphenodon Simões et al. 2022
G. †Notosphenos Agnolín et al. 2024
G. †Sphenofontis Villa et al. 2021
G. †Tika Apesteguía et al. 2021
G. †Sphenovipera Reynoso 2005
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Sphenovipera jimmysjoyi Reynoso 2005
G. †Theretairus Simpson 1926
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Theretairus antiquus Simpson 1926
G. †Zapatadon Reynoso and Clark 1998
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Zapatadon ejidoensis Reynoso and Clark 1998
Invalid names: Hatteriidae Cope 1864 [synonym]
Invalid names: Patricosaurus Seeley 1887 [nomen dubium], Weigeltisauria Kuhn 1939 [empty]
Unr. Lepidosauriformes Gauthier et al. 1988
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Fm. †Kuehneosauridae Romer 1966
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G. †Icarosaurus Colbert 1966
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Icarosaurus siefkeri Colbert 1966
G. †Kuehneosaurus Robinson 1962
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Kuehneosaurus latus Robinson 1962
G. †Kuehneosuchus Robinson 1967
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Kuehneosuchus latissimus Robinson 1962
G. †Pamelina Evans 2009
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Pamelina polonica Evans 2009
G. †Perparvus
G. †Rhabdopelix Cope 1870
G. †Marmoretta Evans 1991
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Marmoretta oxoniensis Evans 1991
G. †Neosauroides Kim et al. 2017
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Neosauroides innovatus Kim et al. 2019
Neosauroides koreaensis Kim et al. 2017
G. †Paliguana Broom 1903
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Paliguana whitei Broom 1903
Fm. †Paliguanidae Broom 1926
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G. †Santaisaurus Koh 1940
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Santaisaurus yuani Koh 1940
G. †Sophineta Evans and Borsuk−Białynicka 2009
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Sophineta cracoviensis Evans and Borsuk−Białynicka 2009
G. †Tamaulipasaurus Clark and Hernandez 1994
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Tamaulipasaurus morenoi Clark and Hernandez 1994
G. †Taytalura Martinez et al. 2021
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Taytalura alcoberi Martinez et al. 2021
G. †Vellbergia Sobral et al. 2020
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Vellbergia bartholomaei Sobral et al. 2020
G. †Vinitasaura Sues and Kligman 2021
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Vinitasaura lizae Sues and Kligman 2021
Invalid names: Saurosternidae Haughton 1924 [empty]
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: terrestrialsubc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Created: 2017-04-17 15:16:03
Modified: 2017-04-17 15:16:03
Source: subc = subclass, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Hendy et al. 2009, Carroll 1988

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Spathian to the top of the Holocene or 251.30000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 251.2 Ma

Collections (601 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Induan252.17 - 251.2Russian Federation (Nizhnii Novgorod) Blomosaurus ivachnenkoi (94247)
Induan252.17 - 251.2Australia (Queensland) Kudnu mackinlayi (85560)
Induan252.17 - 251.2China (Xinjiang) Santaisaurus yuani (93419)
Early/Lower Triassic252.17 - 247.2Germany (Saarland) Lepidosauria indet. (36204)
Early/Lower Triassic252.17 - 247.2United Kingdom (England) Hamatopus sp. (184048)
Induan - Olenekian252.17 - 247.2South Africa (Eastern Cape) Paliguana whitei (13043)
Induan - Olenekian252.17 - 247.2Russian Federation (Orenburg) Rhynchocephalia indet. (37040)
Smithian251.3 - 247.2Russian Federation (Orenburg) Rhynchocephalia indet. (196057)
Spathian251.3 - 247.2Russian Federation (Orenburg) Scharschengia sp. (196059)
Olenekian251.2 - 247.2Poland (Malopolskie) Lepidosauromorpha indet., Diapsida indet. (38528)
Olenekian - Anisian251.2 - 242.0Germany (Thuringia) Hamatopus wildfeueri (182300)
Aegean - Bithynian247.2 - 242.0Germany (Rheinland-Pfalz) Eifelosaurus triadicus (134292)
Aegean - Bithynian247.2 - 242.0USA (Arizona) Anisodontosaurus greeri (34888 95112)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0United Kingdom (England) Coartaredens isaaci (88977) Feralisaurus corami (214637) Sauria indet. (57944)
Middle Triassic247.2 - 237.0USA (Arizona) Anisodontosaurus greeri (232491 232492)
Longobardian242.0 - 235.0Germany (Baden-Württemberg) Lepidosauria indet. (101873) Rhynchocephalia indet., Fraxinisaura rozynekae, Vellbergia bartholomaei (101875)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0USA (Texas) Sphenodontidae indet. (84271)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul) Clevosaurus hadroprodon (203745)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0USA (Virginia) Sphenodonta indet., Vinitasaura lizae, Lacertilia indet. (39159)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0India (Madhya Pradesh) Sphenodontia indet. (105292) Sphenodontidae indet. (207798)