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Toxasteridae

Echinoidea - Spatangoida - Toxasteridae

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1920Toxasteridae Lambert
1966Toxasteridae Fischer p. U551
2010Toxasteridae Kroh and Smith p. 173

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Deuterostomia
Ambulacraria
phylumEchinodermata
subphylumEleutherozoa
Echinozoa()
classEchinoidea()
RankNameAuthor
subclassEuechinoideaBronn 1860
superorderAcroechinoidea()
Carinacea
Irregularia()
Atelostomata
orderSpatangoida
familyToxasteridae
familyToxasteridae

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Fm. †Toxasteridae Lambert 1920
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G. †Adytaster
G. †Aphelaster Lambert 1920
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Douvillaster triangularis Sanchez Roig 1949
G. †Enallaster d'Orbigny 1853
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Enallaster texanus Roemer 1849
Enallaster yuasensis Tanaka and Okubo 1954
G. †Enallopneustes Pomel 1883
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Heteraster constrictus Fourtau 1921
Heteraster oblongus Brogniart 1821
G. †Isaster
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Isaster aquitanicus Grateloup 1836
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Invalid names: Epiaster aquitanicus dOrbigny 1853 [synonym], Ismidaster toulai Boehm 1927 [synonym]
Isaster benguellensis de Loriol 1888
G. †Macraster Roemer 1888
G. †Polydesmaster Lambert 1920
G. †Toxaster Agassiz 1839
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Toxaster retusus Lamarck 1816
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: high Mg calciteo
Ontogeny: accretion, addition of partsp
Environment: marineo
Locomotion: slow-movingo
Life habit: shallow infaunalo
Diet: deposit feedero
Diet 2: detritivoreo
Vision: limitedc
Dispersal: watero
Dispersal 2: planktonico
Created: 2004-02-28 12:18:10
Modified: 2009-10-08 16:32:56
Source: o = order, c = class, p = phylum
References: Kiessling 2004, Aberhan 1992

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Late/Upper Berriasian to the top of the Danian or 145.00000 to 61.60000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 140.2 Ma

Collections (266 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Late/Upper Jurassic - Valanginian161.5 - 132.9Chile (Huasco) Heteraster sp. (223282)
Late/Upper Berriasian145.0 - 140.2Algeria Toxaster granosus (64322)
Middle Berriasian145.0 - 140.2Algeria Toxaster africanus (64360)
Early/Lower Valanginian140.2 - 136.4France Toxaster granosus (65193)
Late/Upper Valanginian140.2 - 136.4France Toxaster granosus (65189 65190 65191 65192 65194 65197) Toxaster retusus (55745) Toxaster sp. (55746)
Valanginian139.8 - 132.9Portugal Toxaster casterasi, Toxaster subcavatus (64952 65674) Toxaster sp. (65709) Toxaster subcavatus (65702)
Valanginian139.8 - 132.9Switzerland Toxaster campichei (2213 2215 2217) Toxaster granosus (2247)
Valanginian139.8 - 132.9Morocco (Western High Atlas) Toxaster granosus (2062)
Valanginian139.8 - 132.9France Toxaster campichei (2214 2216 2218 2219 2220)
Valanginian - Hauterivian139.8 - 129.4China (Xizang) Toxaster sp. (61419)
Early/Lower Hauterivian136.4 - 130.0France Toxaster lorioli (65195) Toxaster retusus (68926 68928 68929 68930 68932 68933 68934 68936 68937 68939 68940 68943 68944 68946 68947 68952 68963 68968 68969 68983 68984 68986 68987 68989 68990 68991 68992 68993 68994 68995 68996 68997 69004 69005 69007 69020 69021 69022 69063 69064 69065 69066 69067 69077 69078 69079 69080 69081 69082 69083 69490 69492 69494 69735 69736 69743 69744 69745 69746 69747 69748 69749 69750 69751 69752 69754 69757 69760 69762 69763 69764 69765 69766 69776 69777 69778 69780 69781 69782 69783 69785 69786 69793 69794 69796 84870 84872 84873 84874 84875 84876 84877 84878 84879) Toxaster sp. (61545)
Late/Upper Hauterivian136.4 - 130.0France Toxaster gibbus (65196)
Late/Upper Hauterivian136.4 - 130.0Switzerland (Neuchatel) Toxaster retusus (31986)
Hauterivian132.9 - 129.4Portugal Heteraster sabugensis, Heteraster corvensis, Toxaster retusus (65876) Toxaster exilis (73321) Toxaster granosus (65745 65753 65756 65757 65759 65767 65773 73136) Toxaster granosus, Toxaster retusus (65752) Toxaster retusus (65858 73143) Toxaster sp. (65854) Toxaster subcavatus, Toxaster granosus, Toxaster exilis (65740)
Hauterivian132.9 - 129.4Switzerland Toxaster complanatus (2198 2201) Toxaster complanatus, Toxaster granosus (2200)
Hauterivian132.9 - 129.4France Toxaster complanatus (2203 2206) Toxaster complanatus, Toxaster granosus (2209) Toxaster complanatus, Toxaster granuosus (2199)
Hauterivian132.9 - 129.4Chile (Huasco) Heteraster sp. (223252)
Hauterivian132.9 - 129.4France (Provence) Toxaster sp. (56774 56779)
Hauterivian132.9 - 129.4Colombia Toxaster roulinae (97672)
Late/Upper Barremian130.0 - 125.45Turkmenistan Toxaster retusus (47025)
Late/Upper Barremian - Aptian130.0 - 113.0Romania Heteraster oblongus (221641)
Late/Upper Barremian - Aptian130.0 - 113.0Chile (CopiapĆ³) Enallaster texanus (222944)
Barremian129.4 - 125.0Morocco (Marrakech) Toxaster sp. (126611)
Barremian129.4 - 125.0Morocco (Western High Atlas) Toxaster maurus, Toxaster peroni (2067)
Barremian129.4 - 125.0France Toxaster complanatus (2212)
Barremian129.4 - 125.0Portugal Heteraster couloni, Heteraster pomeli, Heteraster oblongus (73518) Heteraster couloni, Toxaster ricordeaui (73156) Heteraster delgadoi (73499) Heteraster lepidus (73306 73329) Heteraster lepidus, Heteraster couloni (73348)
Barremian129.4 - 125.0Yemen (Wadi Hajar) Heteraster oblongus (2576)
Barremian129.4 - 125.0Switzerland Toxaster complanatus (2194 2196 2197)
Barremian - Aptian129.4 - 113.0Portugal Heteraster couloni, Heteraster crisminensis, Heteraster oblongus (73501)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0Mexico (Sonora) Macraster sp. (82135)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0Chile (CopiapĆ³) Heteraster sp. (223022)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0Mexico Toxaster sp. (65623)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0Portugal Heteraster constrictus (73566) Heteraster peroni (73507) Heteraster peroni, Heteraster oblongus, Heteraster constrictus (73556) Heteraster peroni, Heteraster pomeli (73564)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0Switzerland Heteraster couloni (2188 2189 2192 2193 2226 2227 2228 2229) Heteraster oblongus (2177 2231) Toxaster couloni (2179)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0Egypt Enallaster verruculatus (161584) Toxaster collegnoi, Toxaster radula, Toxaster lamberti (63979)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0Spain (Catalonia) Toxaster collegnoi (111535)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0Morocco (Western High Atlas) Toxaster villei (2069 2070)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0United Kingdom (England) Toxaster fittoni (1748 1760 1840 1850 1851) Toxaster fittoni, Toxaster complanatus (1836) Toxaster fittoni, Toxaster renevieri (1769)
Aptian125.0 - 113.0France Heteraster couloni (2186 2190) Toxaster collegnoi (38806)
Late/Upper Aptian122.46 - 113.0Mexico (Baja California) Enallaster texanus (1881)
Late/Upper Aptian122.46 - 113.0Algeria Heteraster sp. (40789) Heteraster tissoti (40788) Heteraster tissoti, Heteraster oblongus (40787)
Late/Upper Aptian122.46 - 113.0Egypt Heteraster constrictus (220856)
Late/Upper Aptian122.46 - 113.0Serbia and Montenegro Heteraster oblongus (67546)
Late/Upper Aptian122.46 - 113.0Mexico Toxaster sp. (65624)
Late/Upper Aptian - Early/Lower Albian122.46 - 109.0Spain (Castellon) Heteraster sp., Toxaster sp. (3722) Toxaster sp. (3724)
Early/Lower Aptian121.4 - 122.46Mexico Heteraster sp. (64372)
Early/Lower Aptian121.4 - 122.46Portugal (Lisboa) Heteraster oblongus (32320)
Early/Lower Aptian121.4 - 122.46Hungary Heteraster zircensis (66039)
Early/Lower Aptian121.4 - 122.46Spain (Valenciana) Heteraster oblongus (45154)
Early/Lower Aptian121.4 - 122.46France Heteraster oblongus (65910)
Early/Lower Aptian121.4 - 122.46Algeria Heteraster oblongus (40786)
Albian113.0 - 100.5Madagascar (Mahajanga) Douvillaster hourcqi, Toxaster gaudryi, Toxaster sp. (86497)
Albian113.0 - 100.5Mexico (Coahuila de Zaragoza) Enallaster texanus (88630 88634)
Albian113.0 - 100.5Madagascar Douvillaster hourcqi (98230) Toxaster gaudryi (98244 98245)
Albian113.0 - 100.5Peru (Cajamarca) Enallaster sp. (56911 56912)
Early/Lower Albian112.03 - 109.0Egypt Heteraster verruculatua, Heteraster constrictus (98325)
Early/Lower Albian112.03 - 109.0Peru Enallaster peruanus (88152)
Early/Lower Albian112.03 - 109.0United Kingdom (England) Toxaster murchisonianus (1864)
Early/Lower Albian112.03 - 109.0France Macraster sp. (58939)
Early/Lower Albian112.03 - 109.0USA (Texas) Enallaster texanus (203431)
Early/Lower Albian112.03 - 109.0Portugal Heteraster delgadoi (145812)
Early/Lower Albian112.03 - 109.0Peru (Cajamarca) Enallaster peruanus (88171) Enallaster sp. (88167 88172) Heteraster obliquatus (88515) Heteraster obliquatus, Heteraster roseheni (88517) Heteraster obliquatus, Heteraster sp. (88516)
Early/Lower Albian - Middle Albian112.03 - 105.3France Macraster polygonus (56522)
Middle Albian109.0 - 105.3United Kingdom (England) Toxaster murchisonianus (1765)
Middle Albian109.0 - 105.3France Macraster polygonus (38036 56846) Macraster sp. (58368 58422)
Middle Albian109.0 - 105.3Egypt Toxaster lamberti, Toxaster lyonsi (98326)
Middle Albian109.0 - 105.3Peru Enallaster peruanus (88175 158987)
Middle Albian - Cretaceous109.0 - 66.0Mexico (Colima) Heteraster mexicanus (31305)
Urutawan - Motuan108.4 - 99.5New Zealand Toxasteridae indet. (37264)
Late/Upper Albian105.3 - 99.6USA (Texas) Macraster nodopyda, Macraster elegans, Macraster arguilera (58637)
Late/Upper Albian105.3 - 99.6Angola Isaster benguellensis (210852)
Late/Upper Albian105.3 - 99.6Madagascar (Mahajanga) Toxaster gaudryi (98220)
Late/Upper Albian105.3 - 99.6Peru (Cajamarca) Enallaster sp. (88164)
Late/Upper Albian105.3 - 99.6Portugal Heteraster delgadoi (145814)
Late/Upper Albian105.3 - 99.6France Macraster polygonus (56552 58527)
Late/Upper Albian105.3 - 99.6Spain (Alicante) Douvillaster longesulcatus, Macraster polygonus (38035)
Late/Upper Albian105.3 - 99.6Spain Douvillaster longesulcatus (3824) Douvillaster sp. (3823)
Late/Upper Albian105.3 - 99.6Egypt Toxaster lamberti, Toxaster lyonsi, Heteraster constrictus (98327)
Early/Lower Cenomanian - Late/Upper Albian99.6 - 99.6Spain Douvillaster longesulcatus, Douvillaster sp., T. () (3832)
Early/Lower Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5France Heteraster sp. (59817)
Middle Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5France Heteraster sp. (59805)
Middle Cenomanian99.6 - 93.5Mozambique Douvillaster hourcqui (174799 174830)
Middle Campanian - Early/Lower Maastrichtian83.5 - 66.0Japan (Wakayama) Enallaster sp., Enallaster yuasensis (203140)
Danian66.0 - 61.6Turkey Isaster toulai (48062)
Danian66.0 - 61.6Austria Isaster aquitanicus (47930)