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Actinostreon gregareum

Bivalvia - Ostreida - Palaeolophidae

Taxonomy
Ostrea gregarea was named by Sowerby (1816).

It was recombined as Lopha gregarea by Cox (1935) and Sha (1995); it was recombined as Alectryonia gregarea by Besairie and Collignon (1972); it was recombined as Lopha (Actinostreon) gregaria by Fursich (1990); it was recombined as Lopha gregaria by Fürsich (1991); it was recombined as Actinostreon gregareum by Kiessling (2009).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1815Lopha (Rastellum) gregarea Sowerby
1815Ostrea palmetta Sowerby
1816Lopha (Actinostreon) gregarea Sowerby
1816Ostrea gregarea Sowerby
1824Ostrea solitaria Sowerby
1825Ostrea (Alectryonia) costata Sowerby
1825Ostrea costatum Sowerby
1833Ostrea rastellaris Munster
1834Lopha (Lopha) pulligera Goldfuss
1834Ostrea pulligera Goldfuss
1834Ostrea rastellaris Münster
1840Alectryonia flabelliformis Nilson
1840Ostrea carinata Sowerby
1857Ostrea pulligera ascendens Quenstedt
1865Ostrea ascendens Stoppani
1865Ostrea palmetta Stoppani
1878Actinostreon solitarium Bayle
1878Alectryonia potieri Bayle
1883Ostrea (Alectryonia) rastellaris Muenster
1883Ostrea (Alectryonia) rastellaris Münster
1892Ostrea (Alectryonia) pulligera Goldfuss
1892Ostrea (Alectryonia) solitaria Sowerby
1894Ostrea (Alectryonia) vallata Etallon
1900Alectryonia asellus Greppin
1901Alectryonia flabelloides Schloth
1905Alectryonia pulligera Dacque
1905Alectryonia rastellaris Dacque
1911Ostrea (Exogyra) semisolitaria Etallon
1921Lopha solitaria Newton
1929Arctostrea asellus Weir p. 21 figs. Pl. 1, Fig. 19
1931Lopha pulligera Diaz-Romero
1935Lopha gregarea Cox
1939Arctostrea rastellaris Stefanini
1972Alectryonia gregarea Besairie and Collignon
1990Lopha (Actinostreon) gregaria Fursich
1991Lopha gregaria Fürsich
1995Lopha gregarea Sha p. 102 figs. Pl 38, fig 22
2009Actinostreon gregareum Kiessling
2011Actinostreon solitarium Kiessling et al.
2014Actinostreon solitarium Ros-Franch et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Protostomia
Spiralia
superphylumLophotrochozoa
phylumMollusca
classBivalvia
Eubivalvia
subclassAutobranchia(Groblen 1894)
RankNameAuthor
infraclassPteriomorphia(Beurlen 1944)
OstreomorphiFerussac 1822
OstreioniFerussac 1822
OstreataFerussac 1822
superorderOstreiformiiFerussac 1822
orderOstreida(Fërussac 1822)
familyPalaeolophidaeMalchus 1990
genusActinostreon(Bayle 1878)
speciesgregareum(Sowerby 1816)

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Actinostreon gregareum Sowerby 1816
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Invalid names: Alectryonia asellus Greppin 1900 [synonym], Alectryonia flabelliformis Nilson 1840 [synonym], Alectryonia flabelloides Schloth 1901 [synonym], Alectryonia potieri Bayle 1878 [synonym], Alectryonia rastellaris Munster 1833 [synonym], Lopha (Actinostreon) gregarea Sowerby 1816 [synonym], Lopha (Lopha) pulligera Goldfuss 1834 [synonym], Lopha (Rastellum) gregarea Sowerby 1815 [synonym], Ostrea (Alectryonia) costata Sowerby 1825 [synonym], Ostrea (Alectryonia) pulligera Goldfuss 1892 [synonym], Ostrea (Alectryonia) rastellaris Muenster 1883 [synonym], Ostrea (Alectryonia) solitaria Sowerby 1892 [synonym], Ostrea (Alectryonia) vallata Etallon 1894 [synonym], Ostrea (Exogyra) semisolitaria Etallon 1911 [synonym], Ostrea carinata Sowerby 1840 [synonym], Ostrea costatum Sowerby 1825 [synonym], Ostrea palmetta Sowerby 1815 [synonym], Ostrea pulligera Goldfuss 1834 [synonym], Ostrea pulligera ascendens Quenstedt 1857 [synonym], Ostrea solitaria Sowerby 1824 [synonym]
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: low Mg calciteg
Environment: marine, brackisho
Locomotion: stationaryo
Attached: yeso
Life habit: epifaunalo
Diet: suspension feedero
Vision: blindc
Created: 2005-01-28 02:22:42
Modified: 2005-01-28 04:22:42
Source: g = genus, o = order, c = class
References: Kiessling 2003, Aberhan et al. 2004, Kiessling 2004

Age range: base of the Rhaetian to the top of the Early/Lower Tithonian or 208.50000 to 145.00000 Ma

Collections (354 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3Italy (Lombardy) Ostrea palmetta, Ostrea ascendens (38083)
Early/Lower Jurassic201.3 - 174.1Mexico (Sonora) Alectryonia gregarea (39132)
Jurassic - Late/Upper Jurassic201.3 - 145.0Tunisia Actinostreon solitarium (13862)
Pliensbachian190.8 - 182.7Chile Actinostreon solitarium (95426) Lopha solitaria (7427)
Pliensbachian190.8 - 182.7Spain Actinostreon gregareum (211860 211868 212222) Actinostreon solitarium (211864 211865 211866)
Pliensbachian - Toarcian190.8 - 174.1Chile (Atacama) Actinostreon gregareum (221820)
Early/Lower Pliensbachian189.6 - 183.0Chile Actinostreon solitarium (34067 34075)
Late/Upper Pliensbachian189.6 - 183.0Chile Actinostreon solitarium (33661 33662 33663 33665 33666 33669 33881 35435 35436 35438 35439)
Early/Lower Toarcian183.0 - 182.0Chile (Huasco) Lopha solitaria (223408)
Early/Lower Toarcian183.0 - 182.0Spain Actinostreon gregareum (25613 25663 25664 25673 25674 25675 25771 26156) Actinostreon solitarium (25610 25614)
Early/Lower Toarcian - Middle Toarcian183.0 - 175.6Spain Actinostreon gregareum (51613)
Middle Toarcian182.0 - 175.6Chile Actinostreon solitarium (34120 35445 35448)
Middle Toarcian182.0 - 175.6Spain Actinostreon gregareum (25784 25880)
Late/Upper Toarcian180.1 - 175.6Chile (Atacama) Actinostreon solitarium (221806)
Late/Upper Toarcian180.1 - 175.6Chile Actinostreon solitarium (33876 33877 33878 33879 33880 35446 35449 35450)
Aalenian174.1 - 170.3Chile Actinostreon solitarium (35451)
Early/Lower Bajocian171.6 - 168.4France Lopha gregarea (21269)
Bajocian170.3 - 168.3Saudi Arabia Lopha gregarea (48088 48089) Lopha solitaria (45301 48033 48105 48106 48112)
Bajocian170.3 - 168.3Tanzania Lopha gregarea (36404)
Bajocian170.3 - 168.3India Actinostreon gregareum (68388)
Bathonian - Bajocian168.3 - 168.3Somalia Arctostrea asellus (161488)
Bathonian168.3 - 166.1China (Quinghai-Xizang) Actinostreon gregareum (37381 37422 37424)
Bathonian168.3 - 166.1Saudi Arabia Lopha solitaria (45464 45467 48405 48447 48451 48454 48456 48457 48484) Lopha solitaria, Lopha gregarea (48142 48522)
Bathonian168.3 - 166.1France Alectryonia costata (38738)
Bathonian - Kimmeridgian168.3 - 152.1China (Qinghai) Lopha gregarea (59649)
Early/Lower Bathonian167.7 - 164.7Italy Actinostreon gregareum (160187)
Early/Lower Bathonian167.7 - 164.7India Actinostreon gregareum (63228)
Late/Upper Bathonian167.7 - 164.7India (Gujarat) Actinostreon gregareum (93561)
Late/Upper Bathonian167.7 - 164.7India (Kachchh) Lopha gregarea (24050)
Middle Bathonian167.7 - 164.7France (Picardie) Lopha gregarea (96157 96181)
Middle Bathonian167.7 - 164.7France (Champagne-Ardenne) Lopha gregarea (96192)
Middle Bathonian - Late/Upper Bathonian167.7 - 164.7France (Picardie) Lopha gregarea (96146 96153 96159)
Callovian166.1 - 163.5India Actinostreon gregareum (61794 62050 62765 63075 63079 63080 63231 63236 63242 63251 67548 67564 67571 68555 68596) Lopha gregarea (68673)
Callovian166.1 - 163.5Kenya Lopha gregarea (36461 36464 36465 36466 36473)
Callovian166.1 - 163.5Saudi Arabia Lopha gregarea (48502) Lopha solitaria (45539 45541 45547 47875 47895 47912 48506 48563 48564) Lopha solitaria, Lopha gregarea (48524 48525 48537 48538 48585 48586 48588 48589 48593 48594 48596 48598 48599 48604 48605)
Callovian166.1 - 163.5Tunisia Actinostreon solitarium (13863)
Callovian166.1 - 163.5Jordan Lopha gregarea (35548)
Callovian166.1 - 163.5Ethiopia Arctostrea rastellaris (93482 93492)
Callovian - Oxfordian166.1 - 157.3Somalia Arctostrea rastellaris (94519) Lopha gregarea (92991 93012) Lopha solitaria (93015 93020)
Callovian - Oxfordian166.1 - 157.3Eritrea Lopha solitaria (92925)
Callovian - Oxfordian166.1 - 157.3China (Quinghai-Xizang) Actinostreon gregareum (37427 37430 37432 37435)
Callovian - Oxfordian166.1 - 157.3India Lopha gregarea (68644 68647)
Callovian - Oxfordian166.1 - 157.3Tunisia Actinostreon solitarium (13785 13791 13864 13865 13866 13871 13900 13901 13903 13904 13905 13950 13952)
Callovian - Middle Oxfordian166.1 - 155.7Tunisia Actinostreon solitarium (13792)
Early/Lower Callovian164.7 - 161.2India (Gujarat) Actinostreon gregareum (26639)
Early/Lower Callovian164.7 - 161.2India Actinostreon gregareum (61793 61816 61823 61825 61872 63063 63067 63068 67608 67627 68077 68384)
Early/Lower Callovian164.7 - 161.2Madagascar (Toliara) Lopha gregarea (98171)
Early/Lower Callovian164.7 - 161.2Madagascar Alectryonia gregarea (98095 98096 98119 98120 98126 98128 98129 98138 98153 98155 98159 98165 98194)
Late/Upper Callovian164.7 - 161.2India Actinostreon gregareum (61558 61876 68291 68386 68598 68601)
Middle Callovian164.7 - 161.2Madagascar Alectryonia gregarea (98124 98125 98127 98133)
Middle Callovian - Late/Upper Callovian164.7 - 161.2Tunisia Actinostreon solitarium (13608 13609 13610 13614)
Middle Callovian - Late/Upper Callovian164.7 - 161.2Saudi Arabia Lopha solitaria (34544)
Late/Upper Callovian - Late/Upper Oxfordian164.7 - 155.7Tunisia Actinostreon solitarium (13515 13519)
Middle Callovian - Early/Lower Kimmeridgian164.7 - 150.8Iran (Tabas Area) Actinostreon gregareum (41417)
Oxfordian163.5 - 157.3United Kingdom (England) Actinostreon gregarea (1920) Actinostreon gregareum (2140 2652 2660) Actinostreon solitarium (1556 1558 1559 1560 1608 1610) Actinostreon solitarium, Actinostreon gregareum (1900) Ostrea gregarea (100669)
Oxfordian163.5 - 157.3India Actinostreon gregareum (63529)
Oxfordian163.5 - 157.3Saudi Arabia Lopha solitaria (45759 46031 46051 46064 46296)
Oxfordian163.5 - 157.3Kenya Lopha gregarea (36475) Lopha solitaria (36474 36482) Lopha solitaria, Lopha gregarea (36476)
Oxfordian163.5 - 157.3Portugal Actinostreon solitarium (8282 8283 8287 8513)
Oxfordian163.5 - 157.3Tunisia Actinostreon solitarium (13953)
Oxfordian - Kimmeridgian163.5 - 152.1Eritrea Lopha pulligera (94567 94576) Lopha solitaria (94569 94570 94577) Lopha solitaria, Lopha pulligera (94568)
Oxfordian - Kimmeridgian163.5 - 152.1Somalia Lopha solitaria (94548)
Oxfordian - Kimmeridgian163.5 - 152.1Yemen Alectryonia pulligera (94504)
Oxfordian - Kimmeridgian163.5 - 152.1Ethiopia Lopha solitaria, Lopha gregarea (94547)
Oxfordian - Tithonian163.5 - 145.0Japan (Kochi) Lopha gregarea (40473)
Early/Lower Oxfordian161.2 - 155.7India Actinostreon gregareum (63530 63542)
Early/Lower Oxfordian161.2 - 155.7France Lopha gregaria (8652 8653 8654 8655 8666 8835 8836)
Early/Lower Oxfordian161.2 - 155.7United Kingdom (England) Actinostreon gregareum (5936)
Late/Upper Oxfordian161.2 - 155.7France Actinostreon gregareum (4785) Actinostreon solitarium (4082 4848 4849) Actinostreon solitarium, Actinostreon gregareum (4855) Alectryonia rastellaris (13111)
Late/Upper Oxfordian161.2 - 155.7Germany Actinostreon solitarium (60387)
Late/Upper Oxfordian161.2 - 155.7Ethiopia Actinostreon solitarium (93029 93031 93032 93206 93853 93854 93855 93856 93858 93859 93860 93861 93863 93867 94788)
Late/Upper Oxfordian161.2 - 155.7United Kingdom (England) Actinostreon solitarium (5937)
Late/Upper Oxfordian161.2 - 155.7France (Normandy) Actinostreon solitarium (4080 4788)
Late/Upper Oxfordian161.2 - 155.7Kenya Arctostrea rastellaris (161802) Lopha solitaria (36494) Lopha solitaria, Lopha gregarea (36493)
Middle Oxfordian161.2 - 155.7Spain Lopha gregarea (142581 142582)
Middle Oxfordian161.2 - 155.7France Actinostreon gregareum (4856 4860 4905 4907 4909 4912 4913 4914 4920) Actinostreon solitarium, Actinostreon gregareum (4918)
Middle Oxfordian161.2 - 155.7France (Normandy) Actinostreon gregareum (4904 4910 4911 4915 4916 4917 4919 4921 4923 4924 4925 4926 5238 5240 5243 5247 5249) Actinostreon solitarium, Actinostreon gregareum (5248) Lopha gregarea (5239)
Late/Upper Oxfordian - Early/Lower Kimmeridgian161.2 - 150.8Ethiopia Lopha solitaria (93501)
Late/Upper Oxfordian - Early/Lower Kimmeridgian161.2 - 150.8Portugal Lopha solitaria (68589)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1Ethiopia Alectryonia pulligera (94585) Alectryonia pulligera, Alectryonia rastellaris (94587)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1Kenya Lopha solitaria (36443)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1Portugal Actinostreon solitarium (6011 8285 8511 8512 8514 8516 8517 8518)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1Portugal (Centro) Lopha solitaria (68220)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1Italy (Rieti) Lopha solitaria (202131)
Early/Lower Kimmeridgian155.7 - 150.8Portugal Lopha pulligera (67934) Lopha solitaria (34662 67903 67904 67906 67907 67935)
Early/Lower Kimmeridgian155.7 - 150.8Poland Actinostreon gregareum (126944 126945 126946 126947 126949) Lopha gregarea (38693)
Early/Lower Kimmeridgian155.7 - 150.8Poland (Pomerania) Lopha gregarea (38694)
Early/Lower Kimmeridgian155.7 - 150.8Switzerland (Jura) Actinostreon gregareum (185662 185665 185668)
Late/Upper Kimmeridgian155.7 - 150.8Germany (Baden-Württemberg) Actinostreon gregareum (154138)
Late/Upper Kimmeridgian155.7 - 150.8Kenya Lopha gregarea (36503)
Early/Lower Tithonian150.8 - 145.0France (Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur) Actinostreon gregareum (35262)
Early/Lower Tithonian150.8 - 145.0Portugal Actinostreon solitarium (8158)
Early/Lower Tithonian150.8 - 145.0Germany (Baden-Württemberg) Actinostreon gregareum (23904) Alectryonia pulligera (23903)