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Pliosauridae

Reptilia - Sauropterygia - Pliosauridae

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1869Pliosaurus sterrodirus Seeley p. 98
1869Pliosaurus evansi Seeley p. 116
1871Pliosaurus evansi Phillips p. 317
1871Pliosaurus aequalis Phillips p. 365 fig. 164
1874Pliosauridae Seeley
1889Pliosaurus evansi Lydekker pp. 128-129 fig. 39
1889Peloneustes aequalis Lydekker p. 152 fig. 50
1890Peloneustes evansi Lydekker p. 273
1903Pliosauridae Williston p. 12
1913Pliosauridae Andrews p. 1
1913Peloneustes evansi Andrews p. 71
1940Pliosauridae White p. 465 figs. 11a-d
1943Pliosauridae Welles p. 212
1946Pliosauridae Kuhn p. 59
1960Pliosauridae Delair p. 69
1960Pliosauridae Tarlo p. 152
1962Pliosauridae Welles p. 4
1963Pliosauridae Persson p. 6
1966Pliosauridae Kuhn p. 115
1981Pliosauridae Brown p. 341
1988Pliosauridae Carroll
1991Pliosauridae Bardet et al. p. 1346
1993Pliosauridae Gasparini and Spaletti p. 249
1994Pliosauridae Cruickshank p. 153
1996Pliosauridae Cruickshank pp. 109-113
1997Pliosauridae Cruickshank p. 210
1997Pliosauridae Gasparini p. 136
2001Pliosauridae O'Keefe p. 19 fig. 20
2005Pliosauridae Schumacher and Everhart p. 36
2008Pliosauridae Araujo et al. p. 25 fig. 6
2010Pliosauridae Ketchum and Benson p. 15 fig. 6
2011Pliosauridae Ketchum and Benson p. 126
2012Pliosauridae Benson et al.
2013Pliosauridae Benson et al.
2014Pliosauridae Benson and Druckenmiller figs. 2-3
2014Pliosauridae Cau and Fanti
2018Pliosauridae O'Gorman et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
RankNameAuthor
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
orderSauropterygia
Pistosauria(Baur 1890)
Plesiosauria(de Blainville 1835)
familyPliosauridaeSeeley 1874
familyPliosauridaeSeeley 1874

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
S. W. Williston 1903"Skull depressed; no parietal crest; palatines broadly contiguous in the middle line; pterygoids with a prominent ridge and abutting mandibular process. Neck short; cervical ribs single or double headed; all vertebrae without infracentral vascular foramina."
T. E. White 1940"Dolichocephalic; 11 to 30 cervical vertebrae, 19 to 37 dorsals, 25 to 30 caudals; cervical ribs double- or single-headed; clavicles absent; interclavicle known only in Peloneustes; scapula meeting coracoid medial to scapulo-coracoid fenestra; fenestrae small and separated by a broad bar equal in width to twice the diameter of one fenestra; posterior lateral angles of coracoids not produced."
D. S. Brown 1981Plesiosauria with relatively large skulls; premaxillae bear 5 pairs of teeth; mandibular symphysis long, extending back between several pairs of alveoli which bear enlarged teeth; from 25 to 40 pairs of dentary teeth; teeth broad and strong and frequently show wear on their tips; teeth ornamented with longitudinal ridges and may also be keeled; occipital condyle formed by the basioccipital only; overall length from 3 m in primitive forms to about 12 m in some advanced forms; number of cervical vertebrae primitively about 30 and reducing to a minimum of 13 in advanced forms; except for some primitive forms, cervical centra relatively short; cervical ribs double-headed in Jurassic forms, becoming single-headed in Cretaceous forms; ventral rami of the scapulae usually remaining narrow; ischia relatively long anteroposteriorly; propodials slender, the femur larger than the humerus; epipodials primitively longer than broad, becoming broader than long in advanced forms; the fifth metapodial shifting proximally from the metapodial row in primitive forms to the distal mesapodial row in advanced forms; hyperphalangy of up to 16 phalanges in the longest digit.
F. R. O'Keefe 2001"Preorbital skull length longer than postorbital skull length; rostrum elongate; no contact between premaxilla and external naris; distinct postero-lateral process of frontal absent (reversal); anterior interpterygoid vacuity absent (reversal); vomer reaches past internal nares and meets pterygoid in wide interdigitating suture; mandibular symphysis long; number of maxillary teeth between twenty and thirty; humerus not angled."