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Morphology Ecology and taphonomy   Age range and collections

Vacunella

Bivalvia - Pholadida - Vacunellidae

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1965Vacunella Waterhouse p. 377
1991Vacunella Morris et al. p. 94
2002Vacunella Sepkoski, Jr.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Protostomia
Spiralia
Schizocoela
phylumMollusca
classBivalvia
Eubivalvia
subclassAutobranchia(Groblen 1894)
RankNameAuthor
infraclassHeteroconchia(Cox 1960)
CardiomorphiFerussac 1822
CardioniFerussac 1822
CardiidiaFerussac 1822
CardiataFerussac 1822
superorderPholadiformiiGray 1854
orderPholadidaGray 1854
superfamilyPleuromyoideaDall 1900
familyVacunellidaeAstafieva-Urbajtis 1973
genusVacunella

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
J. B. Waterhouse 1965Inflated shells with anterior orthogyrous umbones, and a shallow depression near the anterior margin in some forms and below the umbo in others. Posterior umbonal ridge well rOWlded in cross-profile, posterior dorsal face concave. Moderately wide posterior dorsal gape. Ornament of concentric wrinkles, costae and very fine pustules. Shell thin, of Simple platy structure. Ligament opisthodetic, parinvicular, supported by sturdy nymphs, contained in moderately defined depression. Anterior adductor (Fig. 21) placed close to anterior ventral extremity, attached by attenuated portion of isthmus to deeply impressed protractor. Anterior retractor lies closer to the umbo on the anterior umbonal ridge. Posterior adductor large (Fig. 3H), placed close to the hinge, posterior retractor elongate, attached to adductor, sub rectangular posteriorly, extended well beyond adductor anteriorly. Pallial line probably with a large shallow sinus. Hinge edentulous, thickened under nymphS and in front of umbo.