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Theriiformes

Mammalia

Taxonomy
Theriiformes was named by Rowe (1988) [Name originally coined by Rowe 1986, PhD dissertation.].

It was reranked as the unranked clade Theriiformes by Rowe (1988) and Luo et al. (2011).

It was assigned to Mammalia by Rowe (1988) and Li and Luo (2006); and to Theriamorpha by Luo et al. (2011).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1988Theriiformes Rowe
2006Theriiformes Li and Luo p. 197
2011Theriiformes Luo et al. p. 444

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1874
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
subclassSarcopterygii()
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda
Reptiliomorpha
RankNameAuthor
Anthracosauria
subclassAmphibiosauriaKuhn 1967
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
subclassSynapsida
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
Theriamorpha(Rowe 1993)
Theriiformes()
Theriiformes()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Unr. †Theriiformes Rowe 1988
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Fm. †Tinodontidae Marsh 1887
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G. †Tinodon Marsh 1879
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Tinodon bellus Marsh 1879
Tinodon lepidus Marsh 1879
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Invalid names: Menacodon rarus Marsh 1887 [synonym]
Tinodon micron Ensom and Sigogneau-Russell 2000
Invalid names: Eurylambda Simpson 1929 [synonym], Menacodon Marsh 1887 [synonym]
G. †Yermakia Lopatin et al. 2005
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Yermakia domitor Lopatin et al. 2005
Unr. Trechnotheria McKenna 1975
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Unr. Cladotheria McKenna 1975
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Fm. †Amphitheriidae Owen 1846
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G. †Amphibetulimus Lopatin and Averianov 2007
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Amphibetulimus krasnolutskii Lopatin and Averianov 2007
G. †Amphitherium de Blainville 1838
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Amphitherium prevostii von Meyer 1832
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Invalid names: Amphitylus oweni Osborn 1888 [synonym]
Amphitherium rixoni Butler and Clemens 2001
Invalid names: Amphigonus Agassiz 1835 [synonym], Thylacotherium Valenciennes 1838 [synonym]
Superor. †Dryolestoidea Butler 1939
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G. †Barberenia Bonaparte 1990
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Barberenia allenensis Rougier et al. 2009
Barberenia araujoae Bonaparte 1990
G. †Brandonia Bonaparte 1990
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Brandonia intermedia Bonaparte 1990
Or. †Dryolestida Prothero 1981
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Fm. †Casamiquelidae Bonaparte 2002
G. †Crusafontia Henkel and Krebs 1969
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Invalid names: Pocamus Canudo and Cuenca-Bescós 1996 [synonym]
Fm. †Donodontidae Sigogneau-Russell 1991
G. †Paraungulatum Bonaparte 2002
Invalid names: Brandoniidae Bonaparte 1992 [empty]
Fm. †Dryolestidae Marsh 1879
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G. †Amblotherium Owen 1871
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Invalid names: Achyrodon Owen 1871 [synonym], Kurtodon Osborn 1887 [synonym], Laodon Marsh 1887 [synonym], Stylacodon Marsh 1879 [synonym], Stylodon Owen 1866 [replaced]
G. †Anthracolestes Averianov et al. 2014
G. †Beckumia Martin et al. 2022
G. †Comotherium Prothero 1981
G. †Dryolestes Marsh 1878
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Invalid names: Asthenodon Marsh 1887 [synonym]
G. †Euthlastus Simpson 1927
G. †Groebertherium Bonaparte 1986
G. †Guimarotodus Martin 1999
G. †Henkelotherium Krebs 1991
G. †Herpetairus Simpson 1927
G. †Herpetarius Simpson 1927
G. †Kepolestes Simpson 1927
G. †Krebsotherium Martin 1999
G. †Lakotalestes Cifelli et al. 2014
G. †Laolestes Simpson 1927
G. †Malthacolestes Simpson 1927
G. †Melanodon Simpson 1927
G. †Miccylotyrans Simpson 1927
G. †Minutolestes Martin et al. 2022
G. †Pelicopsis Simpson 1927
G. †Peraspalax Owen 1871
G. †Phascolestes Owen 1871
G. †Portopinheirodon Martin 1999
Or. †Meridiolestida Rougier et al. 2011
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G. †Austrotriconodon Bonaparte 1986
G. †Cronopio Rougier et al. 2011
G. †Leonardus Bonaparte 1990
Unr. †Mesungulatoidea Rougier et al. 2011
G. †Necrolestes Ameghino 1891
Fm. †Paurodontidae Marsh 1887
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G. †Araeodon Simpson 1937
G. †Archaeotrigon Simpson 1927
G. †Dorsetodon Ensom and Sigogneau-Russell 1998
G. †Drescheratherium Krebs 1998
G. †Foxraptor Bakker and Carpenter 1990
G. †Paurodon Marsh 1887
G. †Tathiodon Simpson 1927
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Invalid names: Tanaodon Simpson 1927 [replaced]
Invalid names: Amphitheriida Prothero 1981 [empty]
Fm. †Vincelestidae Bonaparte 1986
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G. †Vincelestes Bonaparte 1986
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Vincelestes neuquenianus Bonaparte 1986
Unr. Zatheria McKenna 1975
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G. †Abelodon Brunet 1990
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Abelodon abeli Brunet 1990
G. †Arguimus Dashzeveg 1979
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Arguimus khosbajari Dashzeveg 1979
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Invalid names: Arguitherium cromptoni Dashzeveg 1994 [synonym]
Invalid names: Arguitherium Dashzeveg 1994 [synonym]
G. †Chunnelodon Ensom and Sigogneau-Russell 1998
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Chunnelodon alopekodes Ensom and Sigogneau-Russell 1998
G. †Magnimus Sigogneau-Russell 1999
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Magnimus ensomi Sigogneau-Russell 1999
G. †Minimus Sigogneau-Russell 1999
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Minimus richardfoxi Sigogneau-Russell 1999
Fm. †Mozomuridae Li et al. 2005
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G. †Mozomus Li et al. 2005
G. †Nanolestes Martin 2002
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Nanolestes drescherae Martin 2002
Nanolestes krusati Martin 2002
Nanolestes mackennai Martin et al. 2010
G. †Palaeoxonodon Freeman 1976
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Palaeoxonodon ooliticus Freeman 1976
Or. †Peramura McKenna 1975
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Fm. †Peramuridae Kretzoi 1946
Unr. †Prototheria Gill 1872
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Or. †Prototribosphenida Wible 1995
Subcl. Tribosphenida McKenna 1975
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G. †Argaliatherium Cifelli and Davis 2015
G. †Brasilestes Castro et al. 2018
G. †Carinalestes Cifelli and Davis 2015
G. †Culicolestes Cifelli et al. 2016
G. †Idiogenomys Ostrander 1983
Fm. †Kermackiidae Butler 1978
G. †Kielantherium Dashzeveg 1975
G. †Potamotelses Fox 1972
Invalid names: Boreosphenida Luo et al. 2001 [objective synonym]
Unr. †Spalacotherioidea Prothero 1981
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Fm. †Spalacotheriidae Marsh 1887
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G. †Akidolestes Li and Luo 2006
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Akidolestes cifelli Li and Luo 2006
Akidolestes cifelli Li and Luo 2006
G. †Cifellitherium Martin et al. 2022
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Cifellitherium suderlandicum Martin et al. 2022
G. †Infernolestes Cifelli et al. 2014
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Infernolestes rougieri Cifelli et al. 2014
G. †Peralestes Owen 1871
Subfm. †Spalacolestinae Cifelli and Madsen 1999
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G. †Aliaga Cuenca-Bescos et al. 2014
G. †Heishanlestes Hu et al. 2005
G. †Lactodens Han and Meng 2016
G. †Shalbaatar Nessov 1997
G. †Spalacolestes Cifelli and Madsen 1999
G. †Spalacotheridium Cifelli 1990
G. †Spalacotheroides Patterson 1955
G. †Symmetrodontoides Fox 1976
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Invalid names: Mictodon Fox 1984 [synonym]
G. †Yaverlestes Sweetman 2008
G. †Spalacotherium Owen 1854
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Spalacotherium evansae Ensom and Sigogneau-Russell 2000
Spalacotherium henkeli Krebs 1985
Spalacotherium taylori Clemens and Lees 1971
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Invalid names: Peralestes longirostris Owen 1871 [synonym]
G. †Symmetrolestes Tsubamoto and Rougier 2004
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Symmetrolestes parvus Tsubamoto and Rougier 2004
Fm. †Zhangheotheriidae Rougier et al. 2003
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G. †Anebodon Bi et al. 2016
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Anebodon luoi Bi et al. 2016
G. †Kiyatherium Maschenko and Lopatin 2002
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Kiyatherium cardiodens Maschenko and Lopatin 2002
G. †Maotherium Rougier et al. 2003
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Maotherium asiaticus Ji et al. 2009
Maotherium sinensis Rougier et al. 2003
G. †Origolestes Mao et al. 2020
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Origolestes lii Mao et al. 2020
G. †Zhangheotherium Hu et al. 1997
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Invalid names: Yangotheria Chow and Rich 1982 [empty], Zhangheotheria Averianov et al. 2013 [empty]
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Maximum body mass: 1374.7 kgs
Minimum body mass: 3 gs
Environment: terrestrialc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: scansorialuc
Diet: insectivoreuc
Created: 2005-09-06 19:53:51
Modified: 2005-09-07 19:44:02
Source: s = species, c = class, subp = subphylum, uc = unranked clade
References: Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009, Johnson and Madden 1997, Uhen and Gingerich 1995, Legendre 1988, Vizcaíno et al. 2010, Luo et al. 2003, Dozo 1989, Hopson 1973

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Longobardian to the top of the Holocene or 242.00000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 235.0 Ma

Collections (22222 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Longobardian242.0 - 235.0Spain (Alicante) Theria sp. (202238)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3Germany (Baden-Württemberg) Pantotheria indet. G2 (194663)
Bathonian168.3 - 166.1Russian Federation (Krasnoyarsk) Amphibetulimus krasnolutskii, Dryolestidae indet. (61891)
Bathonian168.3 - 166.1United Kingdom (Scotland) Eupantotheria indet. (139746)
Bathonian168.3 - 166.1Morocco (Figuig) Dryolestida indet., Amphitheriidae indet. (176120)
Early/Lower Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom (England) Eupantotheria indet. (31054)
Late/Upper Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom (England) Amphitheriidae indet. (224639) Amphitheriidae indet., Amphitherium sp., Peramuridae indet., Palaeoxonodon sp., Eupantotheria indet. (57124) Dryolestidae indet., Amphitherium sp., Palaeoxonodon ooliticus, Eupantotheria indet., Amphitheria indet. (39075)
Middle Bathonian167.7 - 164.7United Kingdom (England) Amphitherium prevostii, Amphitherium rixoni (59357)
Late/Upper Bathonian - Early/Lower Kimmeridgian167.7 - 150.8China (Liaoning) Juramaia sp. (92421)
Callovian166.1 - 163.5Kyrgyzstan (Jalal-Abad) Tinodontidae indet., Paurodontidae indet., Amphitheriidae indet. (46545)
Oxfordian163.5 - 157.3China (Liaoning) Juramaia sinensis (114842)
Late/Upper Oxfordian - Kimmeridgian161.2 - 152.1China (Xinjiang) Zatheria indet., Nanolestes mackennai (47056)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1Turkey Labes atramentosa (173369)
Kimmeridgian157.3 - 152.1Portugal (Leiria) Dryolestidae indet., Krebsotherium lusitanicum, Dryolestes leirensis, Henkelotherium guimarotae, Guimarotodus inflatus, Paurodontidae indet., Drescheratherium acutum, Nanolestes drescherae (24563)
Kimmeridgian - Early/Lower Tithonian157.3 - 145.0Romania Labes atramentosa (201710 201711)
Kimmeridgian - Tithonian157.3 - 145.0USA (Wyoming) Comotherium richi, Laolestes eminens, Amblotherium gracilis (39431) Dryolestes sp. (13212) Dryolestidae indet., Amblotherium megistodon (49636) Eupantotheria indet. (55333) Tinodon lepidus, Menacodon rarus, Tinodon bellus, Miccylotyrans minimus, Melanodon oweni, Euthlastus cordiformis, Dryolestes arcuatus, Comotherium richi, Malthacolestes osborni, Dryolestes vorax, Dryolestes priscus, Herpetairus humilis, Asthenodon segnis, Stylacodon validus, Laolestes grandis, Laolestes sp., Laolestes eminens, Melanodon goodrichi, Pelicopsis dubius, Dryolestes gracilis, Stylacodon gracilis, Laodon venustus, Tanaodon agilis, Archaeotrigon sp., Archaeotrigon brevimaxillus, Paurodon valens, Enneodon crassus, Enneodon affinis, Dryolestes obtusus (12816)
Kimmeridgian - Tithonian157.3 - 145.0USA (Utah) Dryolestidae indet., Euthlastus cordiformis, Herpetairus arcuatus, Dryolestes priscus, Amblotherium sp., Amblotherium debilis, Amblotherium gracilis, Araeodon intermissus, Spalacotheriidae indet. (53035)
Late/Upper Kimmeridgian155.7 - 150.8Tanzania (Lindi) Tendagurutherium dietrichi (47146)
Late/Upper Kimmeridgian155.7 - 150.8Portugal (Lourinha) Dryolestidae indet. (154213)
Late/Upper Kimmeridgian155.7 - 150.8Portugal (Centro) Dryolestidae indet., Zatheria indet. (49304) Tinodon sp., Portopinheirodon asymmetricus, Laolestes andresi, Pantotheria indet. (69708)