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Insecta -

Holometabola is an unranked clade. It is extant.

It was synonymized subjectively with Endopterygota by Beutel and Pohl (2006).

It was assigned to Insecta by Beckemeyer and Hall (2007); and to Neoptera by Misof et al. (2014).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1899Endopterygota Sharp p. 248
1992Endopterygota Carpenter
2007Holometabola Beckemeyer and Hall p. 24
2014Holometabola Misof et al.

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EubilateriaAx 1987
phylumArthropodaLatreille 1829
superclassHexapodaLatreille 1825
CercophoraBörner 1904
subclassPterygota(Brauer 1885)
NeopterygotaCrampton 1924
infraclassNeopteraMartynov 1923

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

No diagnoses are available
No measurements are available
Composition: chitinc
Environment: terrestrialc
Locomotion: actively mobilep
Created: 2017-04-17 09:56:18
Modified: 2017-04-17 09:56:18
Source: c = class, p = phylum
References: Kiessling 2004, Bush and Bambach 2015

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Westphalian A to the top of the Holocene or 318.10000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 314.6 Ma

Collections (3119 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Westphalian A318.1 - 314.6France Westphalomerope maryvonneae (122506)
Westphalian C314.6 - 311.45Czech Republic Phryganea solitaria (155300)
Westphalian C - Westphalian D314.6 - 306.95Germany (Lower Saxony) Metabolarva bella (122514)
Westphalian C - Westphalian D314.6 - 306.95France Avioxyela gallica (122504)
Westphalian D311.45 - 306.95USA (Illinois) Srokalarva berthei (122493)
Westphalian D311.45 - 306.95Czech Republic Phryganea kolbi, Phryganea arenacea (125662)
Gzhelian303.7 - 298.9France Stephanastus polinae (121979)
Asselian298.9 - 295.5Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate) Coleopsis archaica (156248)
Asselian298.9 - 295.5USA (New Mexico) Mecoptera indet. (124386)
Asselian298.9 - 295.5Czech Republic Pseudomerope gallei (114141)
Asselian - Kungurian298.9 - 272.3Russian Federation Minusinia martynovae (126338)
Sakmarian295.5 - 290.1Czech Republic Tshekardocoleidae indet., Protomeropidae indet., Pseudomerope mareki, Pseudomerope havlati, Pseudomerope oborana, Pseudomeropella nekvasilovae, Stenomerope spinari, Moravochorista carolina, Microptysmella moravica, Moravocoleus fractus, Moravocoleus neglegens, Moravocoleus perditus, Moravocoleus permianus, Eocoleus scaber, Umoricoleus perplex, Boscoleus blandus, Votocoleus submissus, Prosperocoleus prosperus, Retelytron conopeum, Oborocoleus rohdendorfi, Liberocoleus intactus (114186)
Sakmarian295.5 - 290.1Germany (Thüringer Wald) Pachypleurites nodosus, Permorhipida furcativenosa (128485)
Artinskian290.1 - 279.3France (Languedoc) Lodevosisyra reducta (105044)
Artinskian290.1 - 279.3USA (Oklahoma) Permocoleus wellingtonensis (104816) Permocoleus wellingtonensis, Permoberotha villosa (104826) Permopanorpa inaequalis (107405)
Artinskian290.1 - 279.3South Africa (Western Cape) Afrocupes firmae (156986)
Artinskian290.1 - 279.3USA (Kansas) Permoberotha convergens (111320) Permoberotha villosa (111319) Permoberotha villosa, Platychorista venosa, Protomerope permiana, Permopanorpa inaequalis, Permopanorpa tenuis, Permopanorpa gracilis, Permopanorpa dunbari, Permopanorpa sellardsi, Permopanorpa formosa, Permopanorpa schucherti, Protopanorpa permiana, Protochorista tetraclada, Protochorista pentaclada, Protopanorpa pusilla, Anormochorista oligoclada, Dictyobiella nervosa, Permoberotha convergens (111219) Permopanorpa raymondi (151412) Platychorista venosa, Permopanorpa inaequalis, Protopanorpa permiana, Protochorista tetraclada, Agetopanorpa maculata, Elmothone martynovae (111217)
Artinskian - Kungurian290.1 - 272.3Russian Federation (Kemerovo) Asiachorista neuburgae, Mesochorista javorskyi (124614)
Kungurian279.3 - 272.3Russian Federation (Komi) Adoptysma anomalanala (97621)
Kungurian279.3 - 272.3South Africa (West Cape) Mecoptera indet. (117279)