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Holometabola

Insecta

Taxonomy
Holometabola is an unranked clade. It is extant.

It was synonymized subjectively with Endopterygota by Beutel and Pohl (2006).

It was assigned to Insecta by Beckemeyer and Hall (2007); and to Neoptera by Misof et al. (2014).

Sister taxa
Aparaglossata, Hymenopterida

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1899Endopterygota Sharp p. 248
1992Endopterygota Carpenter
2007Holometabola Beckemeyer and Hall p. 24
2014Holometabola Misof et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Protostomia
Ecdysozoa
Panarthropoda
phylumArthropodaLatreille 1829
superclassHexapodaLatreille 1825
RankNameAuthor
classInsecta
Dicondylia
Paranotalia
subclassPterygota()
NeopterygotaCrampton 1924
infraclassNeopteraMartynov 1923
Holometabola
Holometabola

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

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Unr. Aparaglossata Peters et al. 2014
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Unr. Neuropteriformia Engel 2022
+
Unr. Coleopterida Kukalová-Peck and Lawrence 2004
+
Or. Coleoptera Linnaeus 1758 [beetle]
+
G. †Adelidium Tillyard 1918
G. †Adikia Handlirsch 1906
G. †Adynasia Handlirsch 1906
G. †Allognosis Handlirsch 1906
G. †Allopliosilpha Gersdorf 1971
Subor. †Alphacoleoptera Engel et al. 2022
G. †Anancaeon Handlirsch 1939
G. †Anapiptus Handlirsch 1906
G. †Anepismus Handlirsch 1906
G. †Angelinella Handlirsch 1906
G. †Anhuistoma Lin 1985
G. †Anhydrophilus Handlirsch 1906
G. †Anomerus Handlirsch 1939
G. †Anypostatus Handlirsch 1939
G. †Apheloodes Dunstan 1923
G. †Apicasia Bode 1953
G. †Apioderes Handlirsch 1939
G. †Apiopyrenides Bode 1953
G. †Apistotes Handlirsch 1906
G. †Apsychus Handlirsch 1939
G. †Aptilotitus Carpenter 1986
+
Invalid names: Aptilotus Bode 1953 [replaced]
G. †Archosyne Ponomarenko et al. 2014
G. †Auchenophorites Carpenter 1986
+
Invalid names: Auchenophorus Bode 1953 [replaced]
G. †Babuskaya Martins-Neto and Gallego 2009
G. †Bareus Handlirsch 1939
G. †Bathygerus Handlirsch 1906
G. †Bellingera Heer 1852
G. †Bellingeropsis Handlirsch 1906
G. †Biadelater Handlirsch 1906
G. †Blaptoides Frič 1901
G. †Bothroptera Handlirsch 1906
G. †Brachylaimon Bode 1953
G. †Brachytrachelites Bode 1953
G. †Brevispinnatus Gomez Pallerola 1979
G. †Brodiola Handlirsch 1906
G. †Bucklandula Handlirsch 1906
G. †Buprestium Westwood 1854
G. †Campopsis Braun 1860
G. †Carabicina Germar 1842
G. †Carabocera Brauer et al. 1889
G. †Cardioides Bode 1953
G. †Cardiosyne Martins-Neto and Gallego 2006
G. †Cerylonopsis Handlirsch 1906
G. †Chimaerocoleites Ponomarenko 1985
G. †Chlaeniopsis Handlirsch 1906
G. †Chrysomelidium Handlirsch 1907
G. †Chrysomelophana Handlirsch 1906
G. †Cistelites Heer 1864
G. †Clathropenna Fujiyama 1973
G. †Clinomerus Carpenter 1986
+
Invalid names: Catomerus Handlirsch 1939 [replaced]
G. †Coccinellophana Handlirsch 1906
G. †Coleopterites Braun 1860
G. †Coleopteron Handlirsch 1906
G. †Colymbetopsis Handlirsch 1906
G. †Cretaceites Wang 1998
G. †Cretofalselaterium Alexeev 2008
G. †Cretogermen Alexeev 2008
G. †Cretohelophorus Ponomarenko 1987
G. †Critoderma Carpenter 1986
+
Invalid names: Cycloderma Heer 1864 [replaced]
G. †Cryptauchenia Bode 1953
G. †Curculidium Handlirsch 1907
G. †Curculium Westwood 1854
G. †Cyphospheron Bode 1953
G. †Darbiopelta Ponomarenko 1986
G. †Diachoristes Bode 1953
G. †Diaperidium Westwood 1854
G. †Diatarastus Handlirsch 1906
G. †Diatrypamene Bode 1953
G. †Dicyphelus Carpenter 1986
+
Invalid names: Dicyphus Bode 1953 [replaced]
G. †Diphymation Bode 1953
G. †Diplocelides Bode 1953
G. †Diplothece Bode 1953
G. †Doggeria Handlirsch 1906
G. †Dysarestus Handlirsch 1906
G. †Ecthlimma Handlirsch 1939
G. †Elateridopsis Zalessky 1929
G. †Elaterina Gardiner 1961
G. †Elytrulum Handlirsch 1907
G. †Enamma Handlirsch 1906
G. †Entomocantharus Bode 1953
G. †Eocoleopteron Handlirsch 1906
G. †Episcepes Bode 1953
G. †Epomenus Handlirsch 1906
G. †Erotylites Cockerell 1920
G. †Etheridgea Handlirsch 1906
G. †Eurynotellus Carpenter 1986
+
Invalid names: Eurynotus Bode 1953 [replaced]
G. †Eurysphinctus Bode 1953
G. †Eusarcantarus Bode 1953
G. †Explansimarginis Lin 1997
G. †Fengningia Hong 1984
G. †Flichea Handlirsch 1906
G. †Fuscicupes Hong and Wang 1990
G. †Gastrodelus Bode 1953
G. †Gastroratus Bode 1953
G. †Gemelina Martins-Neto and Gallego 2006
G. †Glaphoptera Handlirsch 1906
G. †Glaphyropterites Handlirsch 1906
G. †Glaphyropterula Handlirsch 1906
G. †Grahamelytron Zeuner 1959
G. †Grasselites Bode 1953
G. †Gurvanocoleus Ponomarenko 1986
G. †Gyrinites Heer 1852
G. †Gyrinulopsis Handlirsch 1906
G. †Halticophana Handlirsch 1906
G. †Harpalidium Westwood 1854
G. †Heeriaopsis Carpenter 1986
+
Invalid names: Heeriella Handlirsch 1906 [replaced]
G. †Helophoropsis Handlirsch 1906
G. †Helopidium Westwood 1854
G. †Helopium Westwood 1854
G. †Hubeicoleus Hong 1985
G. †Hydroicetes Bode 1953
G. †Hydrophilites Heer 1864
G. †Hydroporopsis Handlirsch 1906
G. †Hyperomima Handlirsch 1906
G. †Kamaroma Handlirsch 1906
G. †Katapiptus Handlirsch 1906
G. †Keleusticus Handlirsch 1906
G. †Kibdelia Handlirsch 1906
G. Kryptophagus Herbst 1792
G. †Laimocenos Bode 1953
G. †Lamiites Frič 1889
G. †Lamiophanes Handlirsch 1906
G. †Laodiscis Lin 1977
G. †Latridiites Heer 1864
G. †Leioodes Dunstan 1923
G. †Leptomites Bode 1953
G. †Leptosolenophorus Bode 1953
G. †Longimaxilla Hong 1982
G. †Loxocamarotus Bode 1953
G. †Macrotrachelites Bode 1953
G. †Masselytron Handlirsch 1939
G. †Megacentrus Heer 1852
G. †Megachorites Bode 1953
G. †Melanophilites Handlirsch 1906
G. †Melanophilopsis Handlirsch 1906
G. †Menephiloides Fujiyama 1973
Unr. Mesocoleoptera Boudinot et al. 2022
G. †Mesoncus Carpenter 1986
+
Invalid names: Loxoncus Bode 1953 [replaced]
G. †Mesorhynchophora Tillyard 1916
G. †Mesotricupes Hong 1982
G. †Mesotylites Bode 1953
G. †Metanastes Bode 1953
G. †Micrelaterium Handlirsch 1906
G. †Microcoleopteron Handlirsch 1906
G. †Microentomus Poinar 2015
G. †Mimelater Handlirsch 1906
G. †Nannoodes Handlirsch 1906
G. †Nebrioides Handlirsch 1906
Unr. Nubili Latreille 1804
G. †Omogongylus Bode 1953
G. †Onkedodimus Handlirsch 1939
G. †Ooidellus Carpenter 1986
+
Invalid names: Ooides Bode 1953 [replaced]
G. †Ooperiglyptus Bode 1953
G. †Ooperioristus Bode 1953
Tr. †Oropseini Legalov and Kirejtshuk 2016
G. †Oxycephalites Bode 1953
G. †Oxytoroptera Handlirsch 1939
G. †Pachycoleon Handlirsch 1906
G. †Pachypleurites Haupt 1952
G. †Paklapwania Lin 1997
G. †Palaeotrachys Bode 1953
Subfm. †Palaeotylinae Poinar et al. 2018
G. †Pallax Handlirsch 1906
G. †Pantodapus Handlirsch 1906
G. †Parabuprestium Handlirsch 1906
G. †Paracurculium Handlirsch 1906
G. †Paragrilium Handlirsch 1906
G. †Paragyrinus Handlirsch 1906
G. †Parasilphites Handlirsch 1906
G. †Parnidium Geinitz
G. †Parnosoma Carpenter 1986
G. †Pedinosoma Bode 1953
G. †Peltocoleops Ponomarenko 1990
G. †Periboloptera Handlirsch 1939
G. †Peridosoma Carpenter 1986
+
Invalid names: Perosoma Bode 1953 [replaced]
G. †Petalocupes Hong 1982
G. †Petrorophus Heer 1852
G. †Phaulogyrinus Handlirsch 1906
G. †Pholipheron Bode 1953
G. †Phytoplesion Bode 1953
G. †Pimeliodes Frič 1901
G. †Plastobuprestites Handlirsch 1906
G. †Plastonebria Handlirsch 1906
G. †Pleuralocista Bode 1953
G. †Polypamon Handlirsch 1906
G. †Praedodromeus Strada et al. 2014
G. †Prionophana Handlirsch 1906
G. †Prochrysomela Handlirsch 1906
G. †Proheuristes Bode 1953
G. †Prophasis Handlirsch 1906
G. †Prosthecogmus Ponomarenko 1985
G. †Prosthenostictus Handlirsch 1906
G. †Protocuneus Cockerell 1915
G. †Prototoma Heer 1852
G. †Pseudobuprestites Handlirsch 1906
G. †Pseudocarabites Handlirsch 1906
G. †Pseudocurculionites Handlirsch 1906
G. †Pseudocymindis Handlirsch 1906
G. †Pseudocyphon Handlirsch 1906
G. †Pseudoelateropsis Handlirsch 1906
+
Invalid names: Elateropsis Roemer 1876 [replaced]
G. †Pseudohydrophilites Handlirsch 1906
G. †Pseudoprionites Handlirsch 1906
G. †Pseudotelephorus Handlirsch 1906
G. †Pseudotenebrio Handlirsch 1906
G. †Pseudus Handlirsch 1906
G. †Rhomaleus Bode 1953
G. †Scalopoides Bode 1953
G. †Semiglobus Handlirsch 1906
G. †Sideriosemion Bode 1953
G. †Silphidium Handlirsch 1907
+
Invalid names: Silphites Fritsch 1882 [replaced]
G. †Sitonites Heer 1864
G. †Smodicoptera Handlirsch 1906
Fm. †Sojanocoleidae Martynov 1932
G. †Sphaericites Bode 1953
G. †Stenelytron Handlirsch 1906
G. †Stictulus Handlirsch 1906
G. †Strongylites Heer 1864
G. †Strullendorfia Kuhn 1938
G. †Telephorium Westwood 1854
Fm. Tenebrionites Latreille 1802 [darkling beetle]
G. †Tetillopsis Hong 1982
G. †Tetragonides Bode 1953
G. †Thurmannia Heer 1852
G. †Toksunius Ponomarenko et al. 2012
G. †Tolype Bode 1953
G. †Triadocoleopteron Zeuner 1930
G. †Trialarva Prokin and Bashkuev 2021
G. †Trichelepturgetes Bode 1953
G. †Tripsalis Bode 1953
G. †Trixagites Heer 1864
G. †Trochiscites Bode 1953
G. †Trochmalus Bode 1953
Fm. Trogossitarii Latreille 1802 [bark gnawing beetle]
G. †Trypocoleus Hong 1982
Fm. †Tshekardocoleidae Rohdendorf 1944
+
Invalid names: Moravocoleidae Kukalová-Peck and Beutel 2012 [synonym], Uralocoleidae Zalessky 1947 [synonym]
G. †Tychon Handlirsch 1908
G. †Ulomites Tillyard 1916
G. †Velenovskya Frič 1889
G. †Wollastonia Heer 1852
G. †Xenogyrinus Handlirsch 1906
G. †Xinbinia Hong 1983
G. †Xylotupia Handlirsch 1906
G. †Yanqingia Hong and Xiao 1997
G. †Zetemenos Bode 1953
Invalid names: Acmaeodera perreaui Piton 1940 [nomen dubium], Ancylocheira liasina Giebel 1856 [nomen dubium], Brochocoleus indibili Soriano and Delclos 2006 [nomen dubium], Carabiques Latreille 1802 [empty], Cebrionates Latreille 1802 [empty], Chrysomelinae Latreille 1802 [empty], Cicindeletae Latreille 1802 [empty], Cistela Geoffroy 1762 [nomen oblitum], Clerii Latreille 1802 [empty], Coleopteron depressus Heer 1879 [nomen nudum], Coleopteron interpunctatus Heer 1864 [nomen nudum], Coleopteron laevigatus Heer 1864 [nomen nudum], Coleopteron scabriusculus Heer 1879 [nomen nudum], Coprophagi Latreille 1802 [empty], Criocerina pristina Germar 1813 [nomen dubium], Curculionites liasinus Heer 1852 [nomen dubium], Curculiopsidae Martynov 1937 [empty], Cydnopsis nigromembranacea Jordan 1967 [nomen dubium], Diaperialae Latreille 1802 [empty], Elateridopsidae Zalessky 1929 [invalid subgroup], Eleuterata Fabricius 1775 [synonym], Entomophagi Latreille 1804 [empty], Eodromeus viriosus Zhang 1997 [nomen dubium], Erotilenae Latreille 1802 [empty], Euchroma arvernica Piton 1940 [nomen dubium], Eucoleoptera Engel et al. 2022 [invalid subgroup], Helophorus exilis Heer 1862 [nomen dubium], Helophorus magnus Heer 1862 [nomen dubium], Helopii Latreille 1802 [empty], Helops atticus Redtenbacher 1867 [nomen dubium], Hydrobius godeti Heer 1862 [nomen dubium], Hydrobius obsoletus Heer 1856 [nomen dubium], Hydrocanthares Latreille 1802 [empty], Hydrophilus stenopterus Heer 1862 [nomen dubium], Hydrous ebeninus Statz 1939 [nomen dubium], Hylesinus lineatus Förster 1891 [nomen dubium], Ipidae Bedel 1888 [empty], Isomira aurora Wickham 1914 [nomen dubium], Leptopodocoleidae Hong 1982 [invalid subgroup], Macrogastri Latreille 1802 [empty], Malacodermi Latreille 1802 [empty], Malacodermidae [empty], Megopis lineolatus Piton 1940 [nomen dubium], Metaxycoleoptera Engel et al. 2022 [invalid subgroup], Necrophagi Latreille 1802 [empty], Necticus minutus Aymard 1856 [nomen nudum], Nitidulariae Latreille 1802 [empty], Onthophagus luteus Oustalet 1874 [nomen dubium], Palpatores Latreille 1802 [empty], Platyprosopi Latreille 1804 [empty], Protocoleoptera Tillyard 1924 [empty], Rhynchophori Latreille 1804 [empty], Saperda valdensis Heer 1864 [nomen dubium], Saprophagi Latreille 1804 [empty], Staphyliniae Latreille 1802 [empty], Sternoxi Latreille 1802 [empty], Tridigitati Latreille 1802 [empty], Versicolores Latreille 1804 [empty], Xylophagi Latreille 1802 [empty], Zacoleoptera Engel et al. 2022 [invalid subgroup]
Or. †Skleroptera Kirejtshuk and Nel 2013
+
Fm. †Stephanastidae Kirejtshuk and Nel 2013
Or. Strepsiptera Kirby 1813 [twisted-winged parasite]
+
Fm. †Cretostylopidae Kathirithamby and Engel 2014
Unr. Eteostrepsiptera Engel 2016
Fm. †Phthanoxenidae Engel and Huang 2016
+
Invalid names: Kinzelbachillidae Pohl and Beutel 2016 [synonym]
Fm. †Protoxenidae Pohl et al. 2005
Invalid names: Mengenilliformia Kinzelbach 1971 [invalid subgroup], Mengenilloidea Hofeneder 1910 [invalid subgroup], Mengeoidea Pierce 1908 [invalid subgroup]
Superor. Neuropterida
+
Unr. Metaxyneuroptera Engel 2022
+
Unr. Eidoneuroptera Engel et al. 2018
Or. †Protoneuroptera Grimaldi and Engel 2005
Fm. †Permithonidae Tillyard 1922
+
G. †Elmothone Carpenter 1976
G. †Eopsychops Martynov 1932
G. †Jurla Vilesov 1995
G. †Kunguromaritus Vilesov 1995
G. †Lodevosisyra Prokop et al. 2015
G. †Lodevothone Prokop et al. 2015
G. †Merithone Montagna and Magoga 2024
G. †Okolpania Vilesov 1995
G. †Osmythone Ponomarenko and Shcherbakov 2004
G. †Palaemerobius Martynov 1928
G. †Permantispa Ponomarenko and Shcherbakov 2004
G. †Permegalomus Martynov 1931
+
Invalid names: Bianchia Martynova 1952 [synonym]
G. †Permerobius Novokshonov 1996
G. †Permipsythone Pinto and de Ornellas 1980
G. †Permithone Tillyard 1922
+
Invalid names: Permosmylus Tillyard 1926 [synonym]
G. †Permithonopsis Martynov 1932
G. †Permopsychops Tillyard 1926
G. †Permorapisma Tillyard 1926
G. †Permosisyra Martynov 1932
G. †Relictovia Khramov 2024
G. †Sauropsychops Novokshonov 1996
G. †Sialidopsis Zalessky 1926
G. †Sismerobius Riek 1976
G. †Sylvamarita Vilesov 1995
G. †Sylvasenex Vilesov 1995
G. †Tshekardithonopsis Vilesov 1995
G. †Tychtobius Martynova 1958
G. †Uralisyra Vilesov 1995
Invalid names: Palaemerobiidae Martynov 1928 [synonym], Permegalomidae Martynova 1952 [synonym], Permopsychopsidae Riek 1953 [synonym], Permosisyridae Martynov 1932 [synonym], Sialidopsidae Zalessky 1928 [synonym]
Subor. †Priscaenigmatomorpha Engel 2002
+
Fm. †Chrysoraphidiidae Liu et al. 2014
Fm. †Priscaenigmatidae Engel 2002
Or. Raphidioptera Handlirsch 1908 [snakefly]
+
G. †Caririraphidia Martins-Neto 2002
G. †Cratoraphidia Martins-Neto and Nel 1993
Fm. †Juroraphidiidae Liu et al. 2014
Fm. †Nanosialidae Shcherbakov 2013
Fm. †Parasialidae Ponomarenko 1977
Subor. Raphidiomorpha Engel 2002
+
Superor. Amphiesmenoptera Kiriakoff 1948
+
G. †Aphryganoneura Tillyard 1926
+
Aphryganoneura anomala Tillyard 1926
G. †Liadoptilia Handlirsch 1939
+
Liadoptilia misera Handlirsch 1939
Unr. Metamphiesmenoptera Engel 2022
+
Unr. Euamphiesmenoptera Engel 2022
Invalid names: Cladochoroptera Engel 2022 [empty]
G. †Microcarbonella Prokop et al. 2022
+
Microcarbonella paradoxa Prokop et al. 2022
Or. †Permotrichoptera Martynova 1958
+
Fm. †Microptysmatidae Martynova 1958
+
Invalid names: Uraloptysmatidae Ivanov 1992 [synonym]
Fm. †Microptysmellidae Engel 2022
Or. †Protomeroptera Engel 2022
+
Fm. †Protomeropidae Tillyard 1926
+
Invalid names: Marimerobiidae Willmann 1978 [synonym], Permomeropidae Riek 1953 [synonym], Platychoristidae Carpenter 1930 [synonym]
Fm. †Stereochoristidae Tillyard 1919
+
G. †Stereochorista Tillyard 1919
G. †Trichopteridium Geinitz 1880
+
Trichopteridium gracile Geinitz 1880
Invalid names: Necrotaulius handlirschi Fischer 1962 [nomen dubium], Necrotaulius regularis Handlirsch 1939 [nomen dubium], Necrotaulius vicinus Handlirsch 1939 [nomen dubium], Papilionidea Laicharting 1781 [synonym]
Superor. Antliophora Hennig 1969
+
Or. Mecoptera Packard 1886 [scorpionfly]
+
Fm. †Anormochoristidae Tillyard 1926
Fm. †Belmontiidae Tillyard 1919
+
Invalid names: Parabelmontiidae Tillyard 1922 [synonym]
Fm. Boreidae Latreille 1816
Fm. †Choristopsychidae Martynov 1937
Fm. †Englathaumatidae Novokshonov et al. 2016
Subor. †Eumecoptera Tillyard 1919
G. †Fortiholcorpa Wang et al. 2013
Fm. †Holcorpidae Willmann 1989
Fm. †Kaltanidae Martynova 1958
+
Invalid names: Cyclopteridae Martynova 1958 [synonym], Cycloristidae Martynova 1958 [synonym], Tomiochoristidae Martynova 1958 [synonym]
Fm. †Karaungiridae Novokshonov 1997
G. †Liassopanorpa Martynov 1937
G. †Mecaenigma Novokshonov and Sukacheva 2001
Fm. †Mendozachoristidae Brauckmann et al. 2010
Superfm. †Mesopsychoidea Tillyard 1917
G. †Miriholcorpa Wang et al. 2013
Subor. Nannomecoptera Hinton 1981
G. †Necropsis Hong 1983
Subor. †Paratrichoptera Tillyard 1919
Fm. †Permocentropidae Martynov 1932
Fm. †Permochoristidae Tillyard 1918
+
Invalid names: Caenoptilonidae Zalessky 1933 [synonym], Eosetidae Tindale 1945 [synonym], Idelopanorpidae Zalessky 1929 [synonym], Petrochoristidae Willmann 1989 [synonym], Protopanorpidae Handlirsch 1937 [synonym], Tychtodelopteridae Ponomarenko 1977 [synonym], Tychtopsychidae Martynova 1958 [synonym], Xenochoristidae Riek 1953 [synonym]
Fm. †Permopanorpidae Tillyard 1926
+
Invalid names: Lithopanorpidae Carpenter 1930 [synonym], Martynopanorpidae Willmann 1989 [synonym]
Fm. †Permotanyderidae Riek 1953
Fm. †Permotipulidae Tillyard 1929
+
Invalid names: Permilidae Willmann 1989 [synonym]
Subor. Pistillifera Willmann 1987
G. †Reprehensa Bode 1953
Fm. †Sibiriothaumatidae Sukatsheva and Novokshonov 1998
Fm. †Sinoagetopanorpidae Lian et al. 2023
G. †Solusipanorpa Lin 1980
Fm. †Thaumatomeropidae Willmann 1978
Fm. †Volitorididae Hong 1982
Fm. †Worcestobiidae Soszyńska-Maj et al. 2018
Invalid names: Aneuretopsychina Rasnitsyn and Kozlov 1990 [invalid subgroup], Cyclopterinidae Carpenter 1986 [empty], Eobanksiidae Cockerell 1909 [empty], Panorpata Brauer [synonym], Paramecoptera Tillyard 1919 [empty], Protodiptera Tillyard 1937 [invalid subgroup], Protomecoptera Tillyard 1917 [empty]
+
G. †Curvilarva Novokshonov 2004
Or. Siphonaptera Latreille 1825 [flea]
+
Fm. Ctenophthalmidae Rothschild 1915
G. †Niwratia Jell and Duncan 1986
Fm. Rhopalopsyllidae Oudemans 1909
Superfm. †Saurophthiroidea Ponomarenko 1986
Invalid names: Hystrichopsyllidae Tiraboschi 1904 [empty]
Invalid names: Neuropteroidea [empty]
G. †Cavalarva Aristov and Rasnitsyn 2015
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Cavalarva caudata Aristov and Rasnitsyn 2015
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Or. †Apatohymenoptera Engel 2022
+
Fm. †Avioxyelidae Nel et al. 2013
+
G. †Avioxyela Nel et al. 2013
+
Avioxyela gallica Nel et al. 2013
Or. Hymenoptera Linnaeus 1758
+
Unr. Aculeati Latreille 1802
+
Unr. Nemoglossata Latreille 1802
+
Fm. Apiariae Latreille 1802
Unr. Platiglossata Latreille 1802
+
Invalid names: Andrenetae Latreille 1802 [empty], Crabronites Latreille 1802 [empty], Formicariae Latreille 1802 [empty], Philantores Latreille 1802 [empty], Scolietae Latreille 1802 [empty], Sphegimae Latreille 1802 [empty]
Superfm. Anaxyeloidea Martynov 1925
+
Fm. Anaxyelidae Martynov 1925
+
Subfm. †Anaxyelinae Martynov 1925
+
Invalid names: Dolichostigmatinae Rasnitsyn 1968 [synonym], Kempendajinae Rasnitsyn 1980 [synonym]
Subfm. Syntexinae Benson 1935
+
Invalid names: Paraxiphydriinae Gao et al. 2022 [synonym]
Fm. †Bryopompilidae Engel and Grimaldi 2006
+
Invalid names: Bryopompilidae Rodriguez et al. 2016 [objective synonym]
G. †Nygmatius Hong 1983
+
Superfm. Pamphilioidea Cameron 1890 [sawfly]
+
Fm. Megalodontesidae Konow 1897
+
Subfm. †Archoxyelydinae Wang et al. 2013
Subfm. †Decorisiricinae Wang et al. 2015
G. †Jibaissodes Ren 1995
Subfm. Megalodontesinae Konow 1897
+
Invalid names: Rudisiriciinae Gao et al. 2010 [synonym]
Subfm. †Praesiricinae Rasnitsyn 1968
Invalid names: Praesiricidae Rasnitsyn 1968 [synonym]
Fm. †Mirolydidae Wang et al. 2017
+
G. †Mirolyda Wang et al. 2017
Fm. Pamphiliidae Cameron 1890
+
Subfm. Cephalciinae Benson 1945
G. Cephaleia Jurine 1801
Subfm. Juralydinae Rasnitsyn 1977
Subfm. Pamphiliinae Cameron 1890
G. †Ulteramus Archibald and Rasnitsyn 2015
Invalid names: Lydites Newman 1834 [replaced]
G. †Prolyda Rasnitsyn 1968
+
Prolyda depressa Rasnitsyn 1969
Prolyda dimidia Wang et al. 2016
Prolyda elegantula Wang et al. 2016
Prolyda karatavica Rasnitsyn 1968
Prolyda xyelocera Rasnitsyn 1968
Fm. †Xyelydidae Rasnitsyn 1968
+
G. †Brevilyda Wang and Rasnitsyn 2016
G. †Chifengilyda Zheng and Chen 2018
G. †Ferganolyda Rasnitsyn 1983
G. †Fissilyda Wang et al. 2015
G. †Medilyda Wang and Rasnitsyn 2016
G. †Mesolyda Rasnitsyn 1963
+
Invalid names: Alloxyelula Ren 1995 [synonym]
G. †Novalyda Gao et al. 2013
G. †Rectilyda Wang et al. 2014
G. †Sagulyda Rasnitsyn 1983
G. †Sinoprolyda Hong 1987
G. †Sogutia Rasnitsyn 1977
G. †Strenolyda Wang and Rasnitsyn 2016
G. †Strophandria Rasnitsyn 1968
G. †Xyelyda Rasnitsyn 1968
Invalid names: Megalodontoidea Konow 1897 [synonym]
Superfm. Tenthredinoidea Latreille 1802 [wood wasp]
+
Fm. Argidae Konow 1890 [argid sawfly]
+
Subfm. Arginae Konow 1890
Subfm. Sterictiphorinae Rohwer 1911
G. †Atefia Krogmann et al. 2013
+
Atefia rasnitsyni Krogmann et al. 2013
Fm. Athaliidae Rohwer 1911
+
G. Athalia Leach 1817
Fm. Blasticotomidae Thomson 1871
+
G. Blasticotoma Klug 1834
G. †Paremphytus Brues 1908
G. Runaria Malaise 1931
G. †Zippelia Rasnitsyn and Müller 2023
Invalid names: Xyelotomidae Rasnitsyn 1968 [synonym]
Fm. Cimbicidae Kirby 1837 [cimbicid sawfly]
+
Subfm. Abiinae Thomson 1871
Subfm. †Cenocimbicinae Archibald and Rasnitsyn 2023
Subfm. Cimbicinae Kirby 1837
Subfm. Corynidinae Benson 1938
Subfm. Pachylostictinae Benson 1938
Fm. Diprionidae Rohwer 1910 [conifer sawfly]
+
Subfm. Diprioninae Rohwer 1910
G. †Eodiprion Schedl 2007
Subfm. Monocteninae MacGillivray 1906
Fm. †Electrotomidae Rasnitsyn 1977
+
G. †Electrotoma Rasnitsyn 1977
G. †Manevalia Piton 1940
+
Fm. Pergidae Ashmead 1898
+
Subfm. Perginae Ashmead 1898
Subfm. Perreyiinae Cameron 1883
+
Invalid names: Euryinae Konow 1898 [synonym]
Invalid names: Syzygoniinae Cameron 1883 [empty]
G. †Pseudocimbex Rohwer 1908
+
Pseudocimbex clavatus Rohwer 1908
Fm. Tenthredinidae Latreille 1802
+
Subfm. Allantinae Newman 1834
Subfm. Blennocampinae Konow 1890
G. †Emprionopsis Zhang et al. 1994
Subfm. Heterarthrinae Benson 1952
G. †Leptocampus Zhang et al. 1994
Subfm. Nematinae
G. †Phthonocampus Zhang et al. 1994
G. Rhogogaster Konow 1884
Subfm. Selandriinae Thomson 1871
Subfm. Tenthredininae Latreille 1802
Invalid names: Nematus ellipticus Fritsch 1901 [nomen dubium]
Invalid names: Pteronus prodigus Brues 1908 [nomen dubium]
Unr. Terebrantes Latreille 1802
+
Unr. Ventropedonculati Latreille 1802
+
Fm. Ichneumonides Latreille 1802 [ichneumon wasp]
Invalid names: Cleptiosa Latreille 1802 [empty]
Unr. Ventrosessiles Latreille 1802
+
Invalid names: Tenthredines Latreille 1802 [empty], Urocerata Latreille 1802 [empty]
Unr. Unicalcarida Schulmeister et al. 2002
+
Subor. Apocrita Gerstaecker 1867 [wasp]
+
Unr. Aculeata Latreille 1802
G. †Apocritites Rasnitsyn and Jarzembowski 1998
Fm. †Armaniidae Dlussky 1983
Infraor. Brachycleistogastromorpha Kovalev 1994
Superfm. Ceraphronoidea Haliday 1833
Superfm. Evanioidea Latreille 1802
Superfm. Ichneumonoidea Latreille 1802
Fm. †Khutelchalcididae Rasnitsyn et al. 2004
Fm. †Kuafuidae Rasnitsyn and Zhang 2010
Fm. †Limnetidae Hong 1983
G. †Longhuaia Hong 1984
Superfm. Megalyroidea Schletterer 1889
Superfm. †Panguoidea Li et al. 2019
+
Invalid names: Cynipomorpha Kovalev 1994 [synonym]
Superfm. Stephanoidea Leach 1815
+
Invalid names: Ephialtitoidea Handlirsch 1906 [synonym]
Superfm. Trigonalyoidea Cresson 1887
Invalid names: Apiaria lapidea Germar 1842 [nomen dubium], Asiacynipites Hong 2002 [nomen nudum], Dendrocerus dubitatus Brues 1937 [nomen dubium], Eucynipites Hong 2002 [nomen nudum], Evaniomorpha Rasnitsyn 1988 [invalid subgroup], Stephanomorpha Leach 1815 [invalid subgroup]
Superfm. Cephoidea Newman 1834 [stem sawfly]
+
Fm. Cephidae Newman 1834 [stem sawfly]
Fm. †Sepulcidae Rasnitsyn 1968
G. †Cratoenigma Krogmann and Nel 2012
+
Cratoenigma articulata Krogmann and Nel 2012
Superfm. Orussoidea Newman 1834 [wood wasp]
+
Fm. †Burmorussidae Zhang et al. 2020
Fm. Orussidae Newman 1834 [parasitic wood wasp]
Fm. †Paroryssidae Martynov 1925
Invalid names: Karatavitoidea Rasnitsyn 1963 [synonym]
Superfm. Siricoidea Billberg 1820
+
Fm. †Protosiricidae Rasnitsyn and Zhang 2004
Fm. †Pseudosiricidae Handlirsch 1906
+
Invalid names: Myrmiciidae Maa 1949 [synonym]
G. †Sinanxyela Hong 1982
Fm. †Sinosiricidae Hong 1975
Fm. Siricidae Billberg 1820 [horntail]
Subor. Vespina Laicharting 1781
+
Invalid names: Euhymenoptera [synonym]
Superfm. Xiphydrioidea Leach 1819
+
Invalid names: Xiphydriidae Leach 1819 [empty]
Invalid names: Orussomorpha Rasnitsyn 1980 [invalid subgroup]
Superfm. Xyeloidea Newman 1834 [sawfly]
+
Fm. †Syspastoxyelidae Engel and Huang 2016
+
G. †Burmoxyela Zheng and Rasnitsyn 2021
G. †Deltoxyela Wang et al. 2021
G. †Grandixyela Zheng 2021
G. †Pinguixyela Zheng and Rasnitsyn 2021
G. †Striaexyela Zheng 2019
G. †Syspastoxyela Engel and Huang 2016
Fm. Xyelidae Newman 1834 [sawfly]
+
Subfm. †Archexyelinae Rasnitsyn 1964
Subfm. †Daohugoinae Rasnitsyn and Zhang 2004
Subfm. Macroxyelinae Ashmead 1898
Subfm. †Madygellinae Rasnitsyn 1969
Subfm. Xyelinae Newman 1834
Invalid names: Aculeata Scopoli 1763 [synonym], Cleptes steenstrupi Beck 1836 [nomen nudum], Piezata Fabricius 1798 [synonym], Pseudisobrachium oligocenicum Theobald 1937 [nomen dubium], Shandongodes necrodes Zhang 1985 [nomen dubium], Siricomorpha Rasnitsyn 1980 [invalid subgroup], Symphyta Gerstaecker 1867 [invalid subgroup]
G. †Metabolarva Kirejtshuk et al. 2013
hide
Metabolarva bella Kirejtshuk et al. 2013
Fm. †Srokalarvidae Haug et al. 2016
hide
G. †Srokalarva Haug et al. 2016
+
Srokalarva berthei Haug et al. 2016
Invalid names: Endopterygota Sharp 1899 [synonym]
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: chitinc
Environment: terrestrialc
Locomotion: actively mobilep
Created: 2017-04-17 09:56:18
Modified: 2017-04-17 09:56:18
Source: c = class, p = phylum
References: Kiessling 2004, Bush and Bambach 2015

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Westphalian A to the top of the Holocene or 318.70000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 316.9 Ma

Collections (3100 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Westphalian A318.7 - 316.9France Westphalomerope maryvonneae (122506)
Moscovian315.2 - 307.0Czech Republic Phryganea kolbi, Phryganea arenacea (125662)
Westphalian C314.6 - 309.8Czech Republic Phryganea solitaria (155300)
Westphalian C - Westphalian D314.6 - 307.5France Avioxyela gallica (122504)
Westphalian C - Westphalian D314.6 - 307.5Germany (Lower Saxony) Metabolarva bella (122514)
Westphalian D309.8 - 307.5USA (Illinois) Srokalarva berthei (122493)
Westphalian D309.8 - 307.5Germany (Lower Saxony) Microcarbonella paradoxa (224159)
Gzhelian303.7 - 298.9France Stephanastus polinae (121979)
Asselian298.9 - 295.5Czech Republic Pseudomerope gallei (114141) Pseudomeropella nekvasilovae, Stenomerope spinari, Pseudomerope oborana, Pseudomerope havlati, Pseudomerope mareki, Protomeropidae indet., Microptysmella moravica, Moravochorista carolina, Oborocoleus rohdendorfi, Liberocoleus intactus, Moravocoleus neglegens, Moravocoleus fractus, Prosperocoleus prosperus, Eocoleus scaber, Retelytron conopeum, Moravocoleus permianus, Votocoleus submissus, Umoricoleus perplex, Boscoleus blandus, Tshekardocoleidae indet., Moravocoleus perditus (114186)
Asselian298.9 - 295.5USA (New Mexico) Mecoptera indet. (124386)
Asselian298.9 - 295.5Germany (Thüringer Wald) Pachypleurites nodosus, Permorhipida furcativenosa (128485)
Asselian298.9 - 295.5Germany (Rhineland-Palatinate) Coleopsis archaica (156248)
Asselian298.9 - 295.5Germany Glanomerope virgoferroa, Moscheloptera phantasma (112604)
Asselian - Kungurian298.9 - 272.3Russian Federation Minusinia martynovae (126338)
Artinskian290.1 - 279.3France (Languedoc) Lodevosisyra reducta (105044)
Artinskian290.1 - 279.3USA (Kansas) Permoberotha convergens (111320) Permoberotha villosa (111319) Permopanorpa raymondi (151412) Platychorista venosa, Permopanorpa inaequalis, Protochorista tetraclada, Protopanorpa permiana, Agetopanorpa maculata, Elmothone martynovae (111217) Protomerope permiana, Platychorista venosa, Protopanorpa pusilla, Permopanorpa tenuis, Permopanorpa sellardsi, Permopanorpa dunbari, Permopanorpa gracilis, Permopanorpa inaequalis, Permopanorpa schucherti, Permopanorpa formosa, Protochorista pentaclada, Protochorista tetraclada, Protopanorpa permiana, Anormochorista oligoclada, Permoberotha convergens, Dictyobiella nervosa, Permoberotha villosa (111219)
Artinskian290.1 - 279.3South Africa (Western Cape) Afrocupes firmae (156986)
Artinskian290.1 - 279.3USA (Oklahoma) Permocoleus wellingtonensis (104816) Permocoleus wellingtonensis, Permoberotha villosa (104826) Permopanorpa inaequalis (107405)
Artinskian - Kungurian290.1 - 272.3Russian Federation (Kemerovo) Mesochorista javorskyi, Asiachorista neuburgae (124614)
Kungurian279.3 - 272.3Russian Federation (Suksun) Kamopanorpa fasciipennis, Agetochorista intermedia, Tshekardocoleus magnus (116652) Kamopanorpa fasciipennis, Parachorista uralensis (113379) Marimerobius sp., Kamopanorpa fasciipennis, Sylvopanorpa carpenteri, Permochorista sylvaensis, Agetochorista tillyardi, Agetochorista permiana, Agetochorista sp. (116641) Marimerobius sp., Protomeropidae indet., Kamopanorpa pritykinae, Uraloptysma maculata, Kamopanorpa incerta, Kamopanorpa pallida, Kamopanorpa uralensis, Uraloageta archaica, Petromantis sylvaensis, Tshekardopanorpa biarmica, Protopanorpoides minutus, Protopanorpoides medius, Agetochorista tillyardi, Agetochorista kungurica, Agetochorista permiana, Agetochorista intermedia, Agetochorista punctata, Agetochorista sp., Agetopanorpa sp., Phipoides pusillus, Phipoides ornatus, Sylvacoleodes admirandus, Tshekardocoleus minor, Sylvacoleus richteri, Sylvacoleus sharovi, Tshekardocoleidae indet., Sylvaelytron latipennatum, Sylvasenex lacrimabunda, Sylvamarita minor, Okolpania observabilis, Kunguromaritus guttatus, Kunguromaritus lacer, Tshekardithonopsis zalesskyi, Tshekardithonopsis pictus, Uralisyra angusta, Jurla bisubcostata, Cavalarva caudata (108206) Parachorista uralensis (116642) Protomeropidae indet. (122864) Protomeropidae indet., Curvilarva tshekardensis (122753) Protomeropidae indet., Kamopanorpa fasciipennis, Parachorista uralensis, Kunguromaritus lacer (124241)