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Animalia was named by Linnaeus (1758). It is extant.

It was synonymized subjectively with Eukarya by Margulis (1996); it was reranked as the subkingdom Animalia by Blackwell (2004); it was reranked as the kingdom Animalia by Ruggiero et al. (2015).

It was assigned to Eucarya by Woese et al. (1990); to Eukaryota by Blackwell (2004); to Metazoa by Adl et al. (2005); and to Opisthokonta by Ruggiero et al. (2015).

Sister taxa
Arboreomorpha, Bilateria, Bilaterialomorpha, Diploblastica, Epitheliozoa, Euradiculata, Gephyrea, Homoblastica, Kimberellomorpha, Mesozoa, Neuralia, Pentaradialomorpha, Tetraradialomorpha, Triploblastica, Triradialomorpha (syn. Trilobozoa)

View classification of included taxa

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1758Animalia Linnaeus p. 6
1758Sentularia Unknown
1874Metazoa Haeckel p. 572
1910Eumetazoa Butchili p. 32
1977Oligoopilionus Ciobanu p. 40 figs. Plate 5, Fig. 1
1989Metazoa Shoshani et al. p. 435
1990Animalia Woese et al. p. 4578
1998Metazoa Zrzavy et al.
2002Metazoa Sepkoski, Jr.
2002Muricassis Sepkoski, Jr.
2002Sentularia Sepkoski, Jr.
2002Subtilicyathus Sepkoski, Jr.
2004Animalia Blackwell p. 274
2005Animalia Adl et al. p. 401 figs. Table 1
2005Metazoa Adl et al. p. 401 figs. Table 1
2005Eumetazoa Peterson et al. p. 38
2012Eumetazoa Nielsen p. 33 figs. Fig. 4.2
2015Animalia Ruggiero et al. p. 17

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If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

S. M. Adl et al. 2005Reproduction through an egg cell, usually fertilized by a monociliated sperm cell with acrosome; embryonic development with blastula and gastrulation, with dif- ferentiation into endoderm, ectoderm, mesoderm, and neuroderm; tissues organized into organs that share tasks for the individual, unless secondarily lost; some sec- ondarily reduced to small number of cells (e.g. Myxozoa Grasse ́, 1970); coordina- tion of cells and tissues by membrane receptors that respond to ligands through elaborate signal transduction; characteristic cell–cell junctions with belt desmo- somes (zonulae adherentes); basal lamina and extracellular matrix with collagen and other fibrous proteins (laminin, nidogen, and perlecan); heterotrophic nutrition with secretion of digestive enzymes and osmotrophy through a digestive tract; without cell wall; ectoderm completely surrounding body, and endoderm surround- ing a digestive tract; sensory cells in epithelium; nervous tissue in organized network; epithelial contractile cells between endoderm–ectoderm use actin-myosin. Subdivisions not shown.