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Thalassophonea

Reptilia - Sauropterygia - Pliosauridae

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1822Plesiosaurus recentior Parkinson p. 302
1840Plesiosaurus brachyspondylus Owen p. 78
1845Spondylosaurus frearsi Fischer de Waldheim
1846Pliosaurus wosinskii Fischer de Waldheim
1871Pliosaurus nitidus Phillips pp. 360-361 figs. CLVI-CLVIII
1959Pliosaurus brachyspondylus Tarlo pp. 284-285 figs. plates 51-52
1960Pliosaurus brachyspondylus Delair pp. 70-71
1960Pliosaurus brachyspondylus Tarlo p. 156
1989Pliosaurus brachyspondylus Halstead p. 38
1993Pliosaurus brachyspondylus Bardet et al. p. 390
1993Pliosaurus brachyspondylus Taylor and Cruickshank
2012Pliosaurus brachyspondylus Knutsen p. 267
2013Thalassophonea Benson et al.
2014Thalassophonea Benson and Druckenmiller figs. 2-3

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
RankNameAuthor
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
orderSauropterygia
Pistosauria(Baur 1890)
Plesiosauria(de Blainville 1835)
familyPliosauridaeSeeley 1874
Thalassophonea
Thalassophonea

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
R. B. J. Benson and P. S. Druckenmiller 2014Pliosaurids with the following unique unambiguous synapomorphy: anteroposterior expansion of the dorsal part of the ilium large, expanded to more than 2.5 times the minimum anteroposterior width of the shaft (character 224.3); and these non-unique, unambiguous synapomorphies: medial portion of squamosal arch with anteroposteriorly compressed cross section (54.1; reversed in Brachacheninae, also present in Muraenosaurus leedsii, some polycotylids and elasmosaurids), ventral keel on mandibular symphysis (114.1), heterodont premaxillary dentition (132.1), axial rib articulates with atlantal centrum (142.1; in addition to the axial centrum, with which it articulates primitively), mediolaterally oriented buttress on ventral surface of coracoid absent (216.1), propodials with dorsoventrally compressed, ‘flange’-like pre- and postaxial distal extensions (238.1; reversed in Pliosaurus +Brachaucheninae; also present in some polycotylids), humerus length to width ratio 1.7–2.2 (244.2), preaxial margin of humerus concave with a small anterodistal expansion (245.1), femoral length to width ratio 1.55–2.00 (251.2). Numerous additional cranial synapomorphies are optimised only under DELTRAN because of the relatively high proportion of missing data (72.1%) for the cranial skeleton of Marmornectes candrewi, the sister taxon of Thalassophonea (see online Appendix S1).