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Pinguinus impennis (great auk)

Reptilia - Avetheropoda - Alcidae

Taxonomy
Alca impennis was named by Linnaeus (1758).

It was recombined as Plautus impennis by Hay (1902); it was recombined as Pinguinus impennis by Weigel (1958), Jordan and Olson (1982), Mourer-Chauvire (1999), Smith (2011) and Kilmer and Steadman (2016).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1758Alca impennis Linnaeus
1902Plautus impennis Hay p. 255
1933Alca impennis Lambrecht p. 551
1958Pinguinus impennis Weigel p. 215
1967Alca impennis Greenway p. 271
1974Alca impennis Violani p. 49
1982Pinguinus impennis Jordan and Olson
1999Pinguinus impennis Mourer-Chauvire p. 273
2011Pinguinus impennis Smith p. 30 figs. Figure 14
2016Pinguinus impennis Kilmer and Steadman p. 24 figs. 20, 21

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
RankNameAuthor
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Saurischia()
Theropoda()
Neotheropoda
AverostraPaul 2002
Tetanurae
orderAvetheropoda
suborderCoelurosauria
Maniraptora
Paraves
classAves
orderCharadriiformesHuxley 1867
Panalcidae
familyAlcidaeLeach 1820
subfamilyAlcinaeLeach 1820
genusPinguinusBonnaterre 1790
speciesimpennis()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: hydroxyapatiteo
Entire body: yeso
Adult length: 10 to < 100o
Adult width: 1.0 to < 10o
Adult height: 1.0 to < 10o
Architecture: compact or denseo
Ontogeny: accretion, modification of partso
Grouping: solitaryo
Environment: marineo
Locomotion: actively mobileo
Life habit: ground dwellingo
Diet: carnivoresubo
Reproduction: oviparouso
Dispersal: direct/internalo
Dispersal 2: mobileo
Created: 2017-04-17 10:41:05
Modified: 2017-04-17 10:41:05
Source: subo = suborder, o = order
References: Kiessling 2004, Benton 1983, Bush and Bambach 2015, Marsh 1875

Age range: base of the Early/Lower Pleistocene to the top of the Holocene or 2.58800 to 0.00000 Ma

Collections (123 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Early/Lower Pleistocene2.588 - 0.781Italy Pinguinus impennis (71473)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117Italy Pinguinus impennis (122806)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117USA (Massachusetts) Alca impennis (88532)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117United Kingdom (England) Pinguinus impennis (122802)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117Portugal Pinguinus impennis (122307 122810)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117Portugal (Madeira Island Group) Pinguinus impennis (122815)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117United Kingdom (Scotland) Pinguinus impennis (125440)
Pleistocene2.588 - 0.0117France Pinguinus impennis (122312)
Middle Pleistocene0.781 - 0.126Bermuda Pinguinus impennis (122305)
Middle Pleistocene0.781 - 0.126USA (Florida) Pinguinus impennis (195048 195049)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Norway Pinguinus impennis (73689)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117USA (Virginia) Pinguinus impennis (57706 73485)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Spain Pinguinus impennis (122309)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117France Pinguinus impennis (122308)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Gibraltar Pinguinus impennis (90037 122805)
Late/Upper Pleistocene0.126 - 0.0117Italy Pinguinus impennis (122310 122311)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0USA (Florida) Pinguinus impennis (122076 122303) Plautus impennis (122077)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0United Kingdom (Ireland) Alca impennis (122697 122698)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Greenland Alca impennis (122684 122685 122686) Pinguinus impennis (122249 122250 122251 122252 122253 122254 122255 122256 122257 122258 122259 122260 122261 122262 122263 122264 122265 122266 122267 122268)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Faroe Islands Alca impennis (122687 122688 122689)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0USA (Massachusetts) Alca impennis (122438 122440 122441 122442 122443 122444)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Spain Pinguinus impennis (122819 122826)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0USA (Maine) Alca impennis (122439 122445 122446 122447 122448 122449 122450 122625 122626 176524)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Canada (Newfoundland and Labrador) Alca impennis (122452 122453) Pinguinus impennis (122099 122270)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Netherlands Pinguinus impennis (122115)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0United Kingdom (England) Alca impennis (122695 122696 122699)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Morocco Pinguinus impennis (122304)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Denmark Alca impennis (122630 122631 122632 122633 122634 122635 122636 122637 122638)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Iceland Alca impennis (122621 122677 122678 122679 122681) Pinguinus impennis (122269)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Canada (New Brunswick) Alca impennis (122451)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Sweden Alca impennis (122639 122640 122641)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0Norway Alca impennis (122665 122666 122667 122668 122669 122671 122672 122674 122675)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0United Kingdom Pinguinus impennis (122100 122101 122102 122104 122105 122107 122110 122111 122112 122113 122114)
Holocene0.0117 - 0.0United Kingdom (Scotland) Alca impennis (122690 122691 122692 122693 122694)