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Ballerstedtia typocardia

Reptilia - Testudines - Pleurosternidae

Taxonomy
Pleurosternon typocardium was named by Seeley (1869). Its type specimen is CAMSM J.5329 (Seeley No. 4), a shell (complete carapace in dorsal aspect), and it is a 3D body fossil. It is the type species of Ballerstedtia.

It was synonymized subjectively with Pleurosternum bullocki by Delair (1958); it was recombined as Glyptops typocardium by Milner (2004); it was recombined as Ballerstedtia typocardia by Karl et al. (2012); it was recombined as Dorsetochelys typocardium by Pérez-García (2014).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1869Pleurosternon typocardium Seeley p. 87
1889Thalassemys ruetimeyeri Lydekker p. 149 fig. 36
1910Glyptops ruetimeyeri Watson p. 377 figs. 1-2
1958Glyptops reutimeyeri Delair p. 51
1976Dorsetochelys delairi Evans and Kemp p. 318 figs. text-figs 1–2
2004Glyptops typocardium Milner p. 1445 figs. Text-figs 5B, 8A, 9
2004Dorsetochelys delairi Milner pp. 1463-1464
2011Dorsetochelys delairi Pérez-García and Ortega
2012Ballerstedtia bueckebergensis Karl et al. p. 51
2012Ballerstedtia typocardia Karl et al. p. 54
2013Dorsetochelys delairi Pérez-García and Murelaga
2014Dorsetochelys delairi Perea et al.
2014Dorsetochelys delairi Puntener et al.
2014Dorsetochelys typocardium Pérez-García

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
RankNameAuthor
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
Testudinata(Oppel 1811)
orderTestudinesBatsch 1788
Paracryptodira
superfamilyBaenoidea
familyPleurosternidae
genusBallerstedtia
speciestypocardia()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
A. R. Milner 2004Carapace depressed with a midline ‘hump’, basically oval in shape but with very pronounced nuchal emargination, the nuchal element itself being highly concave. Posterolateral peripheral bones normally not emarginated (emargination in one specimen may represent healed damage). Eight neurals and two suprapygals, the first suprapygal a wide rhomboid, twice as wide as long and with posterior width over twice the anterior width. Costal 1 is an irregular rhomboid, slightly less than twice as long as wide. Outer costal outline heart-shaped, narrowing posteriorly in contrast to oval carapace outline. Small rectangular cervical scute separates first marginal scutes over anterior half of nuchal bone. Vertebral scutes about one-quarter width of carapace with vertebral 1 almost as large as vertebral 2. Pleural scutes overlapping peripheral bones and covering about a quarter of their area. Carapace outer surface is smooth and mostly covered in poorly defined or coarse pitting. Growing to at least an estimated carapace length of 0·3 m (BMNH 40676 and CAMSM J5329).