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Arachnida

Xiphosura - Xiphosurida

Taxonomy
Arachnida was named by Lamarck (1801). It is extant.

It was assigned to Arthropoda by Sepkoski (2002); to Chelicerata by Nielsen (2012); and to Sclerophorata by Lamsdell (2013).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1801Arachnida Lamarck
1817Acari Leach
1822Acarus resinosus Presl p. 210
1862Cecidomyia dubia von Heyden p. 80 figs. Pl 10, fig 4
1885Ixodes tertiarius Scudder
1890Acarina Scudder p. 46
1890Ixodes tertiarius Scudder p. 47 figs. Pl 6 fig 12
1895Podurites Matthew p. 273
1895Podurites saltator Matthew p. 273 figs. Pl 2, fig 10
1899Arthrolycosa prolifera Fritsch p. 61 figs. Pl 153, figs 1-3; text-fig 366
1904Pleurolycosa Fritsch p. 23
1904Pleurolycosa prolifera Fritsch p. 23 fig. 29
1908Acarina Cockerell
1957Acaromorpha Dubinin
2002Arachnida Sepkoski, Jr.
2007Acari Shultz
2007Acaromorpha Shultz
2008Pleurolycosa prolifera Štamberg and Zajíc p. 57 fig. 36
2009Acari Arillo et al. p. 322
2012Arachnida Nielsen p. 244 figs. Fig. 44.2
2013Arachnida Lamsdell p. 20

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Protostomia
Ecdysozoa
Panarthropoda
phylumArthropodaLatreille 1829
subphylumChelicerataHeymons 1901
EuchelicerataWeygoldt and Paulus 1979
RankNameAuthor
Prosomapoda
classXiphosura()
orderXiphosuridaLatreille 1802
Planaterga
Dekatriata
SclerophorataKamenz et al. 2011
classArachnidaLamarck 1801
classArachnidaLamarck 1801

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: chitinc
Grouping: solitaryc
Environment: terrestrialc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: nektobenthicc
Diet: carnivorec
Vision: limitedo
Created: 2017-04-17 09:55:58
Modified: 2017-04-17 09:55:58
Source: o = order, c = class
References: Bambach et al. 2007, Jell and Adrain 2002, Bush and Bambach 2015

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Telychian to the top of the Holocene or 438.50000 to 0.00000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 433.4 Ma

Collections (632 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Telychian438.5 - 433.4United Kingdom (Scotland) Palaeophonus loudonensis (153581)
Telychian - Sheinwoodian438.5 - 430.5United Kingdom (South Lanarkshire) Palaeophonus caledonicus (153592)
Sheinwoodian433.4 - 430.5Sweden Palaeophonus nuncius (153548)
Wenlock433.4 - 427.4Canada (Ontario) Eramoscorpius brucensis (165189 165190)
Ludfordian425.6 - 423.0United Kingdom (Wales) Scorpiones indet. (153611)
Pridoli423.0 - 419.2USA (New York) Palaeophonus osborni (153533) Proscorpius osborni (491 153530 153531) Proscorpius osborni, Archaeophonus eurypteroides (153532) Proscorpius osborni, Archaeophonus eurypteroides, Stoermeroscorpio delicatus (153529)
Pridoli423.0 - 419.2United Kingdom (Shropshire) Palaeophonus lightbodyi (153549)
Pridoli423.0 - 419.2United Kingdom (England) Trigonotarbida indet. (11128)
Lochkovian419.2 - 410.8United Kingdom (England) Praearcturus gigas (153544)
Lochkovian419.2 - 410.8United Kingdom (Worcestershire) Brontoscorpio anglicus (153545)
Lochkovian419.2 - 410.8USA (Wyoming) Praearcturus sp., Hydroscorpius denisoni, Acanthoscorpio mucronatus, Branchioscorpio richardsoni (153534)
Lochkovian419.2 - 410.8United Kingdom Arianrhoda bennetti (153478)
Ditton416.0 - 412.3United Kingdom (Herefordshire) Praearcturus gigas (201736)
Pragian410.8 - 407.6Germany Devonotarbus hombachensis (162728 162729) Devonotarbus hombachensis, Trigonotarbida indet. (152107) Waeringoscorpio westerwaldensis (155761) Waeringoscorpio westerwaldensis, Spinocharinus steinmeyeri, Archaeomartus levis (155760)
Pragian410.8 - 407.6United Kingdom (Scotland) Palaeocharinus sp., Eophalangium sheari (153498) Palaeocharinus sp., Palaeocharinoides hornei, Palaeocharinus rhyniensis, Palaeocharinus scourfieldi, Palaeocharinus calmani, Protacarus crani, Protospeleorchestes pseudoprotacarus, Palaeotydeus devonicus, Paraprotacarus hirsti (172777) Palaeocharinus sp., Palaeocteniza crassipes, Protacarus crani (172778) Palaeocharinus tuberculatus (153492)
Pragian - Emsian410.8 - 393.3United Kingdom (Scotland) Palaeocharinoides sp., Palaeocharinus rhyniensis, Palaeocharinus kidstoni, Protacarus crani (10721)
Early/Lower Emsian409.1 - 402.5Germany Alkenia mirabilis (155774) Devonotarbus hombachensis (162730) Devonotarbus hombachensis, Waeringoscorpio hefteri, Archaeomartus levis, Alkenia mirabilis (155757) Devonotarbus hombachensis, Xenarachne willwerathensis (155775) Palaeoscorpius devonicus (26904) Trigonotarbus stoermeri (172343) Waeringoscorpio hefteri (155758 155759)
Early/Lower Emsian409.1 - 402.5Germany (Alken) Archaeometa devonica, Waeringoscorpio hefteri, Alkenia mirabilis, Archaeomartus tuberculatus (27049)
Eifelian393.3 - 387.7USA (New York) Oribatida indet., Protochthonius gilboa, Devonacarus sellnicki (106001)
Early/Lower Givetian388.1 - 383.7USA (New York) Arachnida indet., Attercopus fimbriungus (28295) Gelasinotarbus fimbriunguis, Gilboarachne griersoni, Gelasinotarbus reticulatus, Gelasinotarbus bonamoae (153480)