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Giraffatitan brancai

Reptilia - Brachiosauridae

Taxonomy
Brachiosaurus brancai was named by Janensch (1914). Its type specimen is MB.R.2180 (= S I; = S 66), a partial skeleton, and it is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is Tendaguru quarry S, which is in a Kimmeridgian/Tithonian estuary/bay marl in the Tendaguru Formation of Tanzania.

It was recombined as Astrodon brancai by Kingham (1962); it was recombined as Giraffatitan brancai by Olshevsky (1992), Taylor (2009), Marty et al. (2010), Ksepka and Norell (2010), Taylor et al. (2011), D'Emic (2012), Knoll et al. (2012), Carballido et al. (2012), Mannion et al. (2013), Royo-Torres et al. (2014), Mocho et al. (2014) and Salisbury et al. (2016).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1914Brachiosaurus brancai Hennig p. 418
1914Brachiosaurus fraasii Hennig p. 418
1914Brachiosaurus brancai Janensch pp. 83, 86 figs. 1-4
1914Brachiosaurus fraasi Janensch pp. 83, 94 figs. 5-6
1915Brachiosaurus brancai Lull p. 329
1915Brachiosaurus fraasi Lull p. 329
1919Brachiosaurus brancai Huene figs. Pl. VII
1927Brachiosaurus brancai Huene p. 457
1927Brachiosaurus fraasi Huene p. 457
1928Brachiosaurus fraasi Haughton p. 72
1928Brachiosaurus brancai Haughton p. 74
1928Branchiosaurus brancai Parkinson p. 283
1933Brachiosaurus brancai Janensch p. 229
1934Brachiosaurus brancai Gross p. 756
1936Brachiosaurus brancai Stromer p. 81
1937Brachiosaurus brancai Janensch p. 550
1938Brachiosaurus brancai Janensch p. 130
1962Astrodon brancai Kingham p. 40
1962Astrodon fraasi Kingham p. 40
1963Brachiosaurus brancai Furon p. 322
1963Brachiosaurus fraasi Furon p. 322
1964Brachiosaurus brancai Tatarinov p. 549 fig. 590
1969Brachiosaurus brancai Van Valen p. 625
1970Brachiosaurus brancai Fischer p. 199
1970Brachiosaurus brancai Steel p. 68
1970Brachiosaurus fraasi Steel p. 68
1970Brachiosaurus brancai Swinton p. 170 fig. 38
1970Brachiosaurus fraasi Swinton p. 172
1978Brachiosaurus brancai Bonaparte p. 427 fig. 202
1978Brachiosaurus brancai Ingavat and Taquet pp. SP1-2
1979Brachiosaurus brancai Jain et al. p. 206
1982Brachiosaurus brancai Santafé et al. pp. 96-97
1983Brachiosaurus brancai Rich et al. p. 285
1984Brachiosaurus brancai Taquet p. 78
1987Brachiosaurus brancai Sanz et al. p. 59
1990Brachiosaurus brancai McIntosh pp. 65-66
1991Brachiosaurus brancai Molnar p. 168
1992Giraffatitan brancai Olshevsky p. 183
1993Brachiosaurus brancai Martin et al. p. 422
1997Brachiosaurus brancai Salgado and Calvo p. 42
1997Brachiosaurus brancai Salgado et al. p. 5
1998Brachiosaurus brancai Wilson and Sereno p. 21
1999Brachiosaurus brancai Bonaparte pp. 149-150
2004Brachiosaurus brancai Upchurch et al. p. 267
2004Brachiosaurus brancai de Almeida et al. p. 242
2005Brachiosaurus brancai Apesteguía p. 249
2005Brachiosaurus brancai Bedell, Jr. and Trexler p. 303
2005Brachiosaurus brancai Dalla Vecchia p. 412
2005Brachiosaurus brancai Tidwell and Wilhite p. 194
2005Brachiosaurus branchi Wilhite p. 270
2006Brachiosaurus brancai Mateus p. 227
2006Brachiosaurus brancai Moser et al. p. 46
2006Brachiosaurus brancai Royo-Torres et al. figs. Table S3
2007Brachiosaurus brancai Apesteguía p. 542
2007Brachiosaurus brancai Mezga et al. p. 197
2008Brachiosaurus brancai Filippi and Garrido p. 581
2009Brachiosaurus brancai González Riga et al. p. 140
2009Brachiosaurus brancai Mannion p. 523 fig. 3
2009Giraffatitan brancai Taylor p. 799
2009Brachiosaurus brancai You and Li
2009Brachiosaurus brancai Zhang et al. p. 220
2010Giraffatitan brancai Ksepka and Norell
2010Giraffatitan brancai Marty et al. p. 129
2010Brachiosaurus brancai Saegusa et al. p. 56
2011Giraffatitan brancai Taylor et al. p. 79
2012Giraffatitan brancai Carballido et al. p. 576
2012Giraffatitan brancai D'Emic
2012Giraffatitan brancai Knoll et al. p. 2
2013Giraffatitan brancai Mannion et al.
2014Giraffatitan brancai Mocho et al.
2014Giraffatitan brancai Royo-Torres et al. p. 645
2016Giraffatitan brancai Salisbury et al. p. 125

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
RankNameAuthor
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Saurischia()
Eusaurischia
Sauropodomorpha(Huene 1932)
Massopoda
Sauropodiformes
Sauropoda()
Eusauropoda
Neosauropoda
Macronaria
Titanosauriformes
familyBrachiosauridae
genusGiraffatitan()
speciesbrancai()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
M. P. Taylor 2009Postspinal laminae present on dorsal vertebrae (character 130); distal ends of transverse processes of dorsal vertebrae possess distinctive, elevated areas with dorsally-facing surface that is connected to the dorsal surface of the remaining process only by a sloping region (character 142); spinodiapophyseal and spinopostzygapophyseal laminae on middle and posterior dorsal vertebrae do not contact each other (character 146); posterior dorsal centra dorsoventrally compressed in cross-section (character 151); posterior dorsal neural spines rectangular for most of their length with little or no lateral expansion except at distal end (character 155); mid-dorsals only about one quarter longer than posterior dorsals (see Paul, 1988:7); mid-dorsals about 40% taller than posterior dorsals (see Paul, 1988:9); dorsal centra short (Janensch, 1950a:72) so that dorsal column is less than twice humerus length (Paul, 1988:9); transverse processes of dorsal vertebrae oriented dorsolaterally (Paul, 1988:9); dorsal neural spines oriented posterodorsally in lateral view; dorsal neural spines are nearly constant in anteroposterior width through much of their height; ligament rugosities on anterior and posterior faces of neural spines limited to shallow semicircles at the dorsal extremity; spinoparapophyseal laminae on some dorsal vertebrae; broad, perforated anterior centroparapophyseal laminae on some dorsal vertebrae; horizontal lamina complex (PRPL, PPDL and PODL) supported from below by forked lamina that does not contact the diapophysis in some dorsal vertebrae; hyposphenal ridge weakly developed or absent from anterior caudal vertebrae (character 178); anterior caudal vertebrae have transversely narrow neural spines (Janensch, 1950a:76); anterior caudal vertebrae with lateral fossae (Janensch, 1950a:76); glenoid articular surface of coracoid oriented directly posteroventrally; glenoid articular surface of coracoid mediolaterally narrow; humerus very gracile (GI = 8.7); lateral margin of humerus straight; projected line connecting articular surfaces of ischiadic and pubic processes of ilium passes through ventral edge of postacetabular lobe (character 264); acute posterior notch between ischiadic peduncle and postacetabular lobe of ilium; tubercle absent from dorsal margin of postacetabular lobe of ilium; distal tip of fourth trochanter lies above midshaft height (character 282); lateral margin of femoral shaft in anterior view with distinct bulge 1/3 down (character 285); femur relatively gracile (GI = 6.2); fibular condyle of femur wider than tibial condyle.