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Gargoyleosaurus parkpinorum

Reptilia - Nodosauridae

Taxonomy
Gargoyleosaurus parkpini was named by Carpenter et al. (1998). Its type specimen is DMNH 27726. Its type locality is Bone Cabin Quarry West (BCQ West), which is in a Kimmeridgian terrestrial sandstone/mudstone in the Morrison Formation of Wyoming. It was considered monophyletic by Vickaryous et al. (2004).

It was corrected as Gargoyleosaurus parkpinorum by Blows (2001), Carpenter (2001), Garcia and Pereda-Suberbiola (2003), Vickaryous et al. (2004), Kilbourne and Carpenter (2005), Mateus (2006), Chure et al. (2006), Galton (2007) and Kirkland et al. (2013); it was misspelled as Gargoyleosaurus parkpinoorum by Han et al. (2014).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1998Gargoyleosaurus parkpini Carpenter et al. pp. 782-3 fig. 1
2000Gargoyleosaurus parkpini Ford p. 176
2001Gargoyleosaurus parkpinorum Blows p. 376
2001Gargoyleosaurus parkpinorum Carpenter p. 457
2003Gargoyleosaurus parkpinorum Garcia and Pereda-Suberbiola p. 160
2004Gargoyleosaurus parkpinorum Vickaryous et al. p. 364
2005Gargoyleosaurus parkpinorum Kilbourne and Carpenter pp. 112-114
2006Gargoyleosaurus parkpinorum Chure et al. p. 237
2006Gargoyleosaurus parkpinorum Mateus p. 231
2007Gargoyleosaurus parkpinorum Galton p. 19
2013Gargoyleosaurus parkpinorum Kirkland et al. p. 5
2014Gargoyleosaurus parkpinoorum Han et al. p. 12 fig. 10

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
RankNameAuthor
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Archosauromorpha(Huene 1946)
Crocopoda
ArchosauriformesGauthier 1986
Eucrocopoda
Archosauria()
informalAvemetatarsalia
Ornithodira
Dinosauromorpha
Dinosauriformes
Dinosauria()
Ornithischia()
Genasauria
Thyreophora()
Ankylosauria()
familyNodosauridae
genusGargoyleosaurus
speciesparkpinorum()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
K. Carpenter et al. 1998Gargoylesaurus differs from all other ankylosaurids in the presence of seven premaxillary teeth; the crown base of the cheek teeth are not swollen into the typical ankylosaur cingulum; the premaxilla has a notch in the shape of an inverted U at the front; there is no secondary palate in the roof of the mouth; nostril openings face laterally as in Ankylosaurus, Shamosaurus and most nodosaurids; the vomer is not expanded upwardly to bisect the nasal cavity; the air passage is straight rather than convoluted as seen in later ankylosaurids; centra of all vertebrae are elongated, unlike the short, wide centra of Mymoorapelta; tips of caudal neural spines are not expanded as in Mymoorapelta; the first armour ring of the neck consists of five partly fused plates; the second armour ring consists of six partly fused plates; at least two elongated spines extend from each shoulder; body armour consists of thin walled cones, unlike the solid conical armour of Mymoorapelta.