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Hindella crassa

Rhynchonellata - Athyridida - Meristellidae

Taxonomy
Atrypa crassa was named by Sowerby (1839) [de Sowerby in de Sowerby & Murchison 1839]. It is a 3D body fossil.

It was recombined as Meristella crassa by Angelin and Lindström (1880); it was recombined as Meristina crassa by Williams (1951); it was recombined as Cryptothyrella crassa by Wright (1968), Boucot et al. (1972) and Isaacson et al. (1976); it was recombined as Hindella crassa by Sheehan (1977).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1839Atrypa crassa Sowerby p. 636 figs. pl. 21 f. 1
1839Atrypa crassa de Sowerby and Murchison p. 636 figs. P1.21, fig. 1
1880Meristella crassa Angelin and Lindström p. 21 figs. pl. 13 f. 4-8, 23-25
1951Meristina crassa Williams
1968Cryptothyrella crassa Wright p. 356
1972Cryptothyrella crassa Boucot et al. figs. Pl. 30, figs. 1-17
1976Cryptothyrella crassa Isaacson et al. pp. 1110 - 1111 figs. P1.1,figs. 13-22
1977Hindella crassa Sheehan p. 34

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Eutriploblastica
Neotriploblastica
Eucoelomata
superphylumLophotrochozoa
Lophophorata
phylumBrachiopodaCuvier 1805
subphylumRhynchonelliformeaWilliams et al. 1996
RankNameAuthor
classRhynchonellataWilliams et al. 1996
orderAthyrididaBoucot et al. 1964
suborderAthyrididinaBoucot et al. 1964
superfamilyMeristelloideaWaagen 1883
familyMeristellidaeWaagen 1883
subfamilyMeristellinaeWaagen 1883
genusHindella
speciescrassa(Sowerby 1839)

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
P. E. Isaacson et al. 1976Exterior.--Shell unequally ventri-biconvex; shell outline subelliptical, with subcircular cross section. Length approximately equal to twice the width. Ventral beak prominent, strongly incurved. Pedicle foramen small. Exterior smooth, with one or two distinct growth lamellae. Anterior commissure rectimarginate to faintly uniplicate. Shell material greatly thickened (up to 6 mm in large specimens) at posterior end.

Ventral interior.-Dental lamellae long, very slightly divergent, extending approximately onequarter valve length, and attached to valve floor throughout length. Pedicle muscle field deeply impressed. Paired diductor scars extend one-third valve length.

Dorsal interior.-Disjunct hinge plates rising from posterior end of myophragm, which is low, rounded, extending over one-half the valve length. Short crural plates extending ventrally from hinge plates. Cardinal process obscured. Muscle field broad, well impressed, and separated by principal myophragm and other smaller myophragms.