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Otekaikea

Mammalia - Artiodactyla - Waipatiidae

Synonymy list
YearName and author
2014Otekaikea Tanaka and Fordyce figs. Fig. 2-17
2015Otekaikea Tanaka and Fordyce p. 4
2016Otekaikea Marx et al. p. 120
2017Otekaikea Berta p. 160

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
RankNameAuthor
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
orderArtiodactyla()
Cetacea()
Pelagiceti
Neoceti
Odontoceti()
superfamilyPlatanistoidea
familyWaipatiidae
genusOtekaikea

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
Y. Tanaka and R. E. Fordyce 2014Otekaikea marplesi is a heterodont odontocete with: a skull of medium size (bizygomatic width 257 mm, cranial length 197 mm); procumbent apical teeth; pterygoid sinus system restricted to the basicranium, without orbital fossae; a remnant intertemporal constriction with parietals exposed laterally; de- pressed supraoccipital; prominent condyles; robust zygomatic processes; and unfused cervical vertebrae. Otekaikea differs from other archaic Odontoceti including Xenorophidae, Simocetus, Agorophius, Patriocetus, Prosqualodon, Squalodontidae, Waipatia, and Papahu, in the unique combination of apomorphies involving: broad dished face; elevated nodular subrhomboidal nasals and elevated frontals; smooth-surfaced premaxillary sac fossae without prominent premaxillary sulci developed posteriorly; premaxillae strongly bifurcated posteriorly, associated with bilateral posterior accessory foramina and elevated crests on the maxillae; periotic with long slender parallel-sided posterior process, and sharp apex of anterior process. Shares with Waipatia maerewhenua: maxilla and occipital partly separated by parietal; flat dorsal surface of periotic; long posterior process of the periotic; and poorly developed ventromedial keel of the bulla. Shares with Squalodontidae, Prosqualodon, and Platanistoidea: scapula with reduced coracoid process. Differs from Squalodontidae and Prosqualodon in lacking large robust heterodont cheekteeth. Differs from Notocetus, Squalodelphis and Platanistidae in lacking: orbital fossae for extensions of pterygoid sinuses; thickened maxilla or elevated maxillary crest over orbit. Otekaikea marplesi differs from crown odontocetes other than Platanistoidea in lacking: the deep facial fossa, enlarged pterygoid sinus fossae, and enlarged posterior process of the bulla of Physeteridae, Kogiidae, and Ziphiidae; the anterior sinus fossa, an apex of the postglenoid process that is dorsally higher than the post-tympanic process, medially located aperture for the cochlear aqueduct, and strongly developed crest between the infraspinous fossa and teres fossa of Eurhinodelphinidae; and the orbital fossae for extensions of pterygoid sinuses, parabullary ridge of periotic, and saddle-shaped involucrum of the bulla of Delphinida.
Y. Tanaka and R. E. Fordyce 2015Genus Otekaikea includes longirostral odontocetes with: condylobasal length around 790+ mm; procumbent tusks; presence of an intra- premaxillary foramina in each premaxilla; large and rounded carotid foramen; and a deep voluminous facial fossa. Otekaikea has the following synapo- morphies: ventromedial edge of the internal open- ing of infraorbital foramen is formed by both the maxilla and palatine; both nasals have a point on the midline and gap with the premaxillae; nasals are relatively narrow; and accessory ossicle is
fused on the periotic. Otekaikea differs from Waipatia in skull features that include: rostrum is relatively longer; premaxillary sac fossa is more elevated; posterolateral plate and posteromedial splint of the premaxilla are more distinct, with an infra-premaxillary foramen on the right or bilater- ally; vertex is less symmetrical, with nasals sub- rhomboidal rather than transversely oval; ascending process of the maxilla is less-rounded; frontal on the vertex is anteroposteriorly shorter; postglenoid process is tapered rather than squared in lateral view; zygomatic process is more robust in ventral view; and paroccipital process has a medi- ally-developed tongue-like articulation for the stylo- hyal. The teeth are near-homodont, and the cheekteeth mostly lack denticles; the mandibles have a fused symphysis. The periotic differs from Waipatia in that: anterior keel is less distinct; accessory ossicle is fused; a less-strongly projecting lateral tuberosity; a wider and more-circular internal acoustic meatus; posterior process is lon- ger and subrectangular rather than elongate comma-shaped, and angled relative to the axis of the periotic from ventral or dorsal views. The poste- rior process of the bulla has less prominent sutures for the periotic, posterior meatal ridge, and post- tympanic process.
Otekaikea differs from Squalodontidae and Prosqualodon in lacking large robust heterodont cheekteeth. Differs from Notocetus, Squalodelphis, Huaridelphis, and Platanistidae in lacking: orbital fossae for extensions of pterygoid sinuses; thick- ened maxilla or elevated maxillary crest over orbit.
Otekaikea differs from other archaic Odontoceti including Xenorophidae, Simocetus, Agorophius, Patriocetus, Prosqualodon, Squalodontidae, and Waipatia, in the unique combination of apo- morphies involving: broad dished face; nasals ele- vated, nodular, and subrhomboidal; frontals elevated; premaxillary sac fossae smooth-sur- faced, without prominent premaxillary sulci devel- oped posteriorly; premaxillae bifurcated posteriorly, each with an intra-premaxillary foramen at the junction between posterolateral plate and postero- medial splint, and elevated crests on the maxillae; periotic with long, slender, parallel-sided posterior process. Otekaikea differs from crown odontocetes other than Platanistoidea in lacking: the supracra- nial basin of Physeteriidae and Kogiidae; an enlarged hamular fossa of Ziphiidae; medially located aperture for the cochlear aqueduct of Eurhinodelphinidae; and the orbital fossae for extensions of pterygoid sinuses, parabullary ridge of periotic, and saddle-shaped involucrum of the bulla of Delphinida.