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Parastrophinella reversa

Rhynchonellata - Pentamerida - Parastrophinidae

Taxonomy
Pentamerus reversus was named by Billings (1857) [Lectotype designated by Jin and Copper (1997).]. Its type specimen is GSC 2281c and is a 3D body fossil. It is the type species of Parastrophinella.

It was recombined as Camerella reversa by Billings (1866); it was recombined as Parastrophia reversa by Hall and Clarke (1894) and Wilson (1914); it was recombined as Parastrophinella reversus by Owen and Harper (1982); it was recombined as Parastrophinella reversa by Schuchert and Cooper (1932), Bolton (1972), Jin and Copper (1997) and Jin and Copper (2000).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1857Pentamerus reversus Billings p. 295
1866Camerella reversa Billings p. 4
1894Parastrophia reversa Hall and Clarke figs. pl. 63 figs. 8-14
1914Parastrophia reversa Wilson p. 135 figs. pl. 4, figs. 35-39
1932Parastrophinella reversa Schuchert and Cooper figs. pl. 29, fig. 7
1972Parastrophinella reversa Bolton p. 30 figs. pl. 5, figs. 11, 16, 17
1982Parastrophinella reversus Owen and Harper
1997Parastrophinella reversa Jin and Copper p. 376 figs. 3.1-3.7, 5.1-5.10, 5.16, 9.1-9.15
2000Parastrophinella reversa Jin and Copper pp. 26 - 27 figs. Pl. 1, figs. 1- 15; Pl. 2, figs. 1- 16; Pl. 3, figs. 1-3, 19; Text-figs. 1 1, 12

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Eutriploblastica
Neotriploblastica
Eucoelomata
superphylumLophotrochozoa
Lophophorata
phylumBrachiopodaCuvier 1805
RankNameAuthor
subphylumRhynchonelliformeaWilliams et al. 1996
classRhynchonellataWilliams et al. 1996
orderPentameridaSchuchert and Cooper 1931
suborderSyntrophiidinaUlrich and Cooper 1936
superfamilyCamerelloideaHall and Clarke 1894
familyParastrophinidaeUlrich and Cooper 1938
genusParastrophinellaSchuchert and Cooper 1931
speciesreversa(Billings 1857)

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
J. Jin and P. Copper 2000Shells relatively small, transversely subelliptical, dorsi biconvex, average length 17.4 mm, width 21.7 mm, and thickness 13.2 mm, and maximum length 23.6 mm, width 29.8 mm, and thickness 20.7 mm (Text-fig. II). Hingeline weakly curved, occupying about 1/3 of maximum shell length, with round cardinal extremities. Anterior commissure denticulate, broadly uniplicate.

Ventral umbo low, weakly to moderately convex, with small, suberect beak rising about I mm above hingeline; interarea low, apsacline at 30-40° from commissural plane, attaining width of 7-8 mm and height of I mm in adult shells; delthyrium, small, devoid of deltidial covering; sulcus beginning immediately anterior of umbo, widening rapidly and deepening anteriorly, bearing two to five rounded costae. Dorsal umbo higher and more strongly convex than ventral umbo, with beak arched over commissural plane and into delthyrial cavity; fold generally low, defined on each side by prominent costa, and bearing total of 3-6 rounded costae. Umbonal portions of both valves commonly smooth, rarely marked b y weak costae; anterior 2/3 -3/5 of shell bearing rounded, simple costae, with three to six on each flank. Growth lines well-developed, relatively coarse, about 3 or4 per 2 mm.

Spondylium relatively long and deep, median septum low, buried in secondary thickening posteriorly to make spondylium appear apparently sessile, becoming slightly higher and clearly elevated above valve floor anteriorly, extending for about 1/3-2/5 of shell length (Text-fig. 12); teeth week. Outer plates weakly converging along most of their height, thickened at dorsal ends and bending medially to form cruralium along entire length; dorsal median (septal) plate mostly buried in prismatic shell material, becoming elevated above valve floor anteriorly; lamellar layer of septal plate not connected to that of outer plates, and protruding through thickened dorsal ends of outer plates; inner plates small, strongly divergent from each other; alate plates wide ribbon-like, extending anteriorly into blade-like brachial processes.