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Ophiuroidea (brittle star)

Ophiuroidea

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1840Ophiuroidea Gray
1895Ophiuroidea von Zittel
1904Ophiuroidea Clark p. 433
1915Ophiuroidea Clark and Twitchell p. 23
1915Ophiuroidea Schuchert pp. 267-268
1965Ophiuroidea Owen p. 544
1966Ophiuroidea Spencer and Wright p. U78
1987Ophiuroidea Squires p. 72
1998Ophiuroidea Barnes p. 310
2001Ophiuroidea Boczarowski p. 8
2002Ophiuroidea Sepkoski
2005Ophiuroidea Dean Shackleton p. 77
2013Ophiuroidea Blake p. 355

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Deuterostomia
Ambulacraria
RankNameAuthor
phylumEchinodermata
subphylumEleutherozoa
Asterozoa()
classOphiuroidea
classOphiuroidea

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Cl. Ophiuroidea Gray 1840 [brittle star]
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G. †Ataxaster Jaekel 1903
G. †Calclyra Frizzell and Exline 1955
+
Calclyra carbonica Kozur and Mostler 1989
Calclyra eiseliana Spandel 1898
Calclyra gracilis Kozur and Mostler 1989
Calclyra spathulata Wernlund 1977
Calclyra spinata Wernlund 1977
Calclyra triangulata Wernlund 1977
G. †Calyptactis Spencer 1930
+
Calyptactis confragosus Miller 1891
+
Invalid names: Onychaster demissus Miller 1891 [synonym]
Calyptactis perarmatus Whidborne 1896
Calyptactis spinosus Spencer 1930
Fm. †Cheiropterasteridae Spencer 1934
+
G. †Hexuraster Jell and Theron 1999
+
Hexuraster weitzi Spencer 1950
Invalid names: Hexura Spencer 1950 [replaced]
G. †Vandelooaster Jell 1997
+
Fm. †Encrinasteridae Schuchert 1914
+
Subfm. †Armathyrasterinae Harper and Morris 1978
+
G. †Armathyraster Harper and Morris 1978
+
Armathyraster paradoxis Harper and Morris 1978
G. †Mausoleaster Jell and Holloway 1983
G. †Cheiropteraster Stürtz 1890
+
Cheiropteraster giganteus Stürtz 1890
G. †Encrinaster Haekel 1866
+
Encrinaster arnoldi Goldfuss 1848
Encrinaster eifelensis Schöndorf 1910
Encrinaster grayae Spencer 1914
Encrinaster hamlingi Spencer 1930
Encrinaster laevidiscus Lehmann 1957
Encrinaster petaloides Simonovitsch 1871
Encrinaster pontis Clarke 1913
Encrinaster roemeri Schöndorf 1910
Invalid names: Aspidosoma Goldfuss 1848 [synonym]
Subfm. †Encrinasterinae Harper and Morris 1978
+
G. †Crepidosoma Spencer 1930
+
Crepidosoma doylei Blake et al. 2017
Crepidosoma wenlocki Spencer 1930
G. †Marginura Haude 1999
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Marginura hilleri Jell and Theron 1999
Invalid names: Marginaster Haude 1995 [replaced]
G. †Euzonosoma Spencer 1930
+
Euzonosoma goldfussi Schöndorf 1910
Euzonosoma montanum Raymond 1912
Euzonosoma orbitoides Spencer 1930
Euzonosoma pusillum Ruedemann 1916
Euzonosoma schmidti Schöndorf 1910
G. †Loriolaster Stürtz 1886
+
Loriolaster gracilis Lehmann 1957
Loriolaster mirabilis Stürtz 1886
G. †Mastigactis Spencer 1930
+
Mastigactis aranea Ruedemann 1916
G. †Urozoma Spencer 1930
Invalid names: Aspidosomatidae Gregory 1899 [objective synonym]
Fm. †Euzonosomatidae Spencer 1930
+
G. †Hymenosoma Lehmann 1957
+
Hymenosoma opitzi Lehmann 1957
G. †Lumectaster Jell 1997
+
Lumectaster howelli Jell 1997
G. †Muldaster Thuy et al. 2022 [brittle star]
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Muldaster haakei Thuy et al. 2022
Subor. Myophiurina Matsumoto 1915
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Infracl. Metophiurida Matsumoto 1913
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Superor. Euryophiurida O'Hara et al. 2017
+
Or. Euryalida Lamarck 1816 [basket star]
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Fm. Asteronychidae Müller and Troschel 1840
Fm. Euryalidae Gray 1840
Fm. Gorgonocephalidae Ljungman 1867
Or. Ophiurida Müller and Troschel 1840
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Subor. Chilophiurina Matsumoto 1915
Infraor. Chilophiurina Matsumoto 1915
G. †Dolicharthra Berry 1938
Infraor. Gnathophiurina Matsumoto 1915
Subor. Ophiomusina O'Hara et al. 2017
G. †Ophiuricoma Valette 1929
Subor. Ophiurina Müller and Troschel 1840
G. †Plathyarthra Berry 1938
Invalid names: Acroura Agassiz 1836 [nomen dubium], Laemophiurina Matsumoto 1915 [empty], Ophioderma asteriformis Picard 1887 [nomen dubium], Ophioderma bonnardi Oppel 1864 [nomen dubium], Ophiolepidina Ljungman 1867 [empty], Ophiolepis damesi Wright 1874 [nomen dubium], Ophiolepis estarensis Barbier et al. 1957 [nomen dubium], Ophiomyxina Fell 1962 [empty], Ophiurites rhaeticus Laugier 1961 [nomen dubium]
Superor. Ophintegrida O'Hara et al. 2017
+
Or. Amphilepidida O'Hara et al. 2017
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Subor. Gnathophiurina Matsumoto 1915
Subor. Ophionereidina O'Hara et al. 2017
Subor. Ophiopsilina Matsumoto 1915
Or. Ophiacanthida O'Hara et al. 2017
+
Subor. Ophiacanthina O'Hara et al. 2017
Or. Ophioleucida O'Hara et al. 2017
+
G. †Triadoleucella Ishida et al. 2023
Invalid names: Ophiernidae O'Hara et al. 2018 [empty], Ophioleucidae Matsumoto 1915 [empty]
Or. Ophioscolecida O'Hara et al. 2017
+
Fm. Ophioscolecidae Lütken 1869
Invalid names: Ophiohelidae Perrier 1893 [empty]
G. †Ophiosuperstes Maxwell and Pruss 2021
+
Ophiosuperstes praeparvus Maxwell and Pruss 2021
Superfm. †Ophiuricae Lehmann 1957
+
G. †Ophiocapillus Krainer and Mostler 1997
G. †Ophioliassica Mostler and Krainer 1993
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Ophioliassica baloghi Mostler and Krainer 1993
Ophioliassica ingridae Mostler and Krainer 1993
G. †Nodolanx
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Nodolanx gambillarai Bizzarini 2001
Nodolanx multinodosa Kristan-Tollmann 1976
Or. Oegophiurida Matsumoto 1915
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Subor. †Lysophiurina Gregory 1897
+
Fm. †Palaeophiuridae Gregory 1897
+
G. †Inyoaster Phleger, Jr. 1936
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Inyoaster bradleyi Phleger, Jr. 1936
Fm. †Protasteridae Miller 1889
+
G. †Astutuaster Boczarowski 2001
+
Astutuaster athleta Boczarowski 2001
G. †Budenbachia Stürtz 1886
+
Budenbachia beneckei Stürtz 1886
G. †Chattaster Hahn and Brauckmann 1981
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Chattaster loculus Boczarowski 2001
G. †Drepanaster Whidborne 1898
+
Drepanaster grayae Spencer 1934
Drepanaster scabrosus Whidborne 1896
Drepanaster schohariae Ruedemann 1912
G. †Eugasterella Schuchert 1914
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Eugasterella africana Jell and Theron 1999
Eugasterella concinna Ringueberg 1886
Eugasterella logani Hall 1868
Eugasterella thorni Kesling 1969
Invalid names: Eugaster Hall 1868 [replaced]
G. †Furcaster Stürtz 1886
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Furcaster aequoreus Boczarowski 2001
Furcaster cataphractus Boczarowski 2001
Furcaster decheni Stürtz 1886
Furcaster leptosoma Salter 1857
+
Invalid names: Squamaster echinatus Ringueberg 1886 [synonym], Sympterura minveri Bather 1905 [synonym]
Furcaster palaeozoicus Stürtz 1886
Furcaster trepidans Spencer 1925
Furcaster zitteli Stürtz 1886
Invalid names: Eoluidia Stürtz 1886 [synonym], Eophiurites Stürtz 1899 [synonym], Palaespondylus Stürtz 1899 [synonym], Palastropecten Stürtz 1886 [synonym], Rhodostoma Sollas and Sollas 1912 [synonym], Squamaster Ringueberg 1886 [synonym], Sympterura Bather 1905 [synonym]
G. †Gamiroaster Reid et al. 2019
+
Gamiroaster tempestatis Reid et al. 2019
G. †Gregoriura Chapman 1907
+
Gregoriura spryi Chapman 1907
G. †Hypophiura Jaekel 1923
+
Hypophiura grayae Dean Shackleton 2005
G. †Mastigophiura Lehmann 1957
+
Mastigophiura grandis Lehmann 1957
G. †Palaeophiura Stürtz 1890
+
Palaeophiura simplex Stürtz 1890
G. †Protaster Forbes 1849
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Protaster bicatenulata Ruedemann 1916
Protaster groomi Spencer and Groom 1934
Protaster piltonensis Spencer 1934
Protaster salteri Salter and Sowerby 1845
+
Invalid names: Protaster groomi Sollas and Sollas 1912 [synonym]
Protaster sedgwickii Forbes 1849
+
Invalid names: Protaster biforis Gregory 1897 [synonym]
Protaster stellifer Ringueberg 1886
Protaster ubaghsi Haude and Thomas 1983
Invalid names: Bohemura Jaekel 1903 [synonym], Urosoma Spencer 1930 [synonym]
Subfm. †Protasterinae Miller 1889
+
G. †Teleosaster Hunter and McNamara 2017
G. †Strataster Kesling and Le Vasseur 1971
+
Strataster devonicus Kesling 1972
Strataster maciverorum Hotchkiss 1993
Strataster ohioensis Kesling and Le Vasseur 1971
Strataster stuckenbergi Rilett 1971
Strataster wrighti Kesling 1970
G. †Taeniaster Billings 1858
+
Taeniaster armoricanus Hunter et al. 2007
Taeniaster elegans Miller 1882
Taeniaster ibericus Hammann and Schmincke 1986
Taeniaster spinosus Billings 1857
+
Invalid names: Protaster whiteavesianus Parks 1908 [synonym], Protasterina fimbriata Ulrich 1878 [synonym]
Invalid names: Alepidaster Meek 1872 [synonym], Palaeophiomyxa Stürtz 1899 [synonym], Protasterina Ulrich 1878 [synonym]
G. †Weigeltura Boczarowski 2001
+
Weigeltura austera Boczarowski 2001
Weigeltura beckeri Boczarowski 2001
Invalid names: Palaeophiomyxidae Stürtz 1899 [synonym], Taeniasteridae Gregory 1899 [synonym]
Invalid names: Ophioencrinasteriae Stürtz 1899 [synonym], Ophiurasteriae Schöndorf 1910 [synonym]
Subor. Zeugophiurina Matsumoto 1929
+
Fm. †Furcasteridae Stürtz 1899
+
G. †Tremataster Worthen and Miller 1883
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Tremataster decheni Dewalque 1880
Tremataster difficilis Worthen and Miller 1883
Fm. †Lapworthuridae Gregory 1897
+
G. †Hallaster Stürtz 1886
+
Hallaster cylindricus Billings 1857
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Invalid names: Protaster forbesi Hall 1860 [synonym]
Invalid names: Taeniura Gregory 1897 [synonym]
G. †Lapworthura Gregory 1897
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Lapworthura lehmanni Glass and Poschmann 2006
Lapworthura miltoni Salter 1857
Lapworthura sollasi Spencer 1914
G. †Miospondylus Gregory 1897
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Miospondylus rhenanus Stürtz 1893
G. †Ophiopolytretus Webster et al. 1999
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Ophiopolytretus aethus Webster et al. 1999
Invalid names: Palaeospondylidae Stürtz 1899 [synonym]
G. †Ophiaulaxoides Yang and Nie 1982
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Ophiaulaxoides aliensis Yang and Nie 1982
Ophiaulaxoides paraliensis Yang and Nie 1982
G. †Ophioma Pomel 1885
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Ophioma juliensis Pomel 1885
G. †Ophiopetagno Thuy et al. 2022
+
Ophiopetagno paicei Thuy et al. 2022
G. †Ophiotrigonum Hess 1960
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G. †Ophiurella Agassiz 1836
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Ophiurella bispinosa d'Orbigny 1850
Ophiurella speciosa Goldfuss 1833
Ophiurella viguieri Porte 1927
Subcl. Ophiuridea Gray 1840
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G. †Ophiaxina Müller 1950
+
Ophiaxina intercarinata Müller 1950
G. †Schizospondylus Müller 1950
G. †Transspondylus Müller 1950
Or. Phrynophiurida Matsumoto 1915
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Subor. Euryalina Lamarck 1816
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Fm. †Eospondylidae Spencer and Wright 1966
+
G. †Eospondylus Gregory 1897
+
Eospondylus ingens Boczarowski 2001
Eospondylus primigenius Stürtz 1886
G. †Kentrospondylus Lehmann 1957
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G. †Ophioflabellum Donofrio and Mostler 1977
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Ophioflabellum altum Kristan-Tollmann et al. 1979
Ophioflabellum cristatum Kristan-Tollmann et al. 1979
Ophioflabellum hessi Donofrio and Mostler 1977
Fm. †Onychasteridae Miller 1889
+
G. †Onychaster Meek and Worthen 1868
+
Onychaster asper Miller 1892
Onychaster barrisi Hall 1861
Onychaster flexilis Meek and Worthen 1868
Onychaster flexilis Meek and Worthen 1868
Onychaster strimplei Bjork et al. 1968
Onychaster velbertensis Haude and Thomas 1983
Invalid names: Asteroschematidae Verrill 1899 [empty]
Fm. Trichasteridae Döderlein 1911
+
Invalid names: Asteronychinae Matsumoto 1915 [empty], Trichasterinae Matsumoto 1915 [empty]
Fm. †Stenasteridae Schuchert 1914
+
G. †Aulactis Spencer 1930
+
Aulactis orthopeda Spencer 1930
G. †Stenaster Billings 1858
+
Stenaster confluens Trautschold 1879
Stenaster obtusus Forbes 1848
+
Invalid names: Hudsonaster batheri Schuchert 1915 [synonym], Stenaster salteri Billings 1858 [synonym], Tetraster wyvillethomsoni Nicholson and Etheridge 1880 [synonym]
Invalid names: Tetraster Nicholson and Etheridge 1880 [synonym]
Invalid names: Calclyridae Frizzell and Exline 1955 [empty], Hallasteridae Spencer 1925 [empty], Myophiuridadup Matsumoto 1915 [empty], Oegophiuridea Matsumoto 1915 [empty], Oegophiuroida Matsumoto 1915 [empty], Zygophiurae [empty]
Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
J. Dean Shackleton 2005Ambulacrals with distal part of perradial bar at same relief as proximal part; distal adambulacral podial flange larger than proximal; adambulacrals reach maximum height at disc centre, becoming smaller proximally; adambulacral groove spines present; convex interradial disc; arm highly separated from interradial disc; first podial pore moves to entirely within circumoral ossicle; proximal part of mouth angle plate developed into flat elongate platform; radial spines present in oral area.
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: high Mg calcitec
Ontogeny: accretion, addition of partsp
Environment: marinec
Locomotion: slow-movingc
Life habit: low-level epifaunalc
Diet: detritivorec
Diet 2: suspension feederc
Vision: blindc
Dispersal: waterp
Dispersal 2: planktonicp
Comments: 322; LIFE HABIT: active slow moving, surficial, generally detritivores, sometimes suspension feeding and carnivorous.c
Created: 2004-02-29 11:30:09
Modified: 2010-02-12 01:58:57
Source: c = class, p = phylum
References: Aberhan et al. 2004, Aberhan 1992

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Floian to the top of the Late/Upper Pleistocene or 477.70000 to 0.01170 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 470.0 Ma

Collections (589 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Floian477.7 - 470.0USA (Utah) Stenaster obtusus (216850)
Llanvirn468.0 - 458.4Czech Republic (Prague) Ophiuroidea indet. (76458)
Darriwilian467.3 - 458.4France Protaster sp. (216849)
Dobrotivian459.0 - 457.9Spain Taeniaster ibericus (93271)
Dobrotivian459.0 - 457.9Morocco (Anti Atlas) Ophiuroidea indet. (194010)
Sandbian458.4 - 453.0Norway Stenaster obtusus (94435)
Caradoc458.4 - 449.5USA (California) Inyoaster bradleyi (200047)
Zahorany - Late/Upper Ordovician457.5 - 443.8Czech Republic Bohemura sp. (3865)
Turinian457.3 - 453.8USA (Kentucky) Stenaster obtusus (100128)
Katian453.0 - 445.2Canada (Ontario) Palaeocoma cylindrica (180117) Stenaster sp. (228229)
Edenian451.0 - 450.2USA (Pennsylvania) Taeniaster sp., Protasterina maximus (34895)
Edenian451.0 - 450.2USA (Ohio) Alepidaster sp. (384)
Maysvillian450.2 - 449.6USA (Ohio) Alepidaster sp. (387 388 391)
Maysvillian - Ashgill450.2 - 443.7USA (Ohio) Alepidaster sp. (389 390)
Richmondian449.6 - 445.5USA (Ohio) Taeniaster elegans (173296)
Richmondian449.6 - 445.5Canada (Ontario) Taeniaster meafordensis (173368)
Richmondian - Ashgill449.6 - 443.7USA (Ohio) Taeniaster sp., Alepidaster sp. (392 393)
Ashgill449.5 - 443.7Morocco Ophiuroidea indet. (194016)
Rawtheyan448.8 - 445.2United Kingdom (Scotland) Encrinaster grayae, Euzonosoma orbitoides (73134)
Telychian438.5 - 433.4Ireland Crepidosoma doylei (191007)