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Dinophyceae

Dinophyceae

Taxonomy

Subtaxa
Actiniscales, Actinotheca, Aiora, Algidasphaeridium, Anthatractus, Apteodinium, Arcticacysta, Aremoricanium, Belodinium, Bicarinellum, Broomea, Calcicarpinium, Calcigonellum, Calciogranellum, Calcipterellum, Calcisphaerellum, Caligodinium, Cantulodinium, Ceratocoryaceae, Chiropteridium, Cryptarchaeodinium, Cymatiogalea, Danea, Diconodinium, Dictyopyxidia (syn. Dictyopyxis), Diornatosphaera, Diplotesta, Disconodinium, Distatodinium, Dollidinium, Downiesphaeridium, Echinidinium, Eodinia, Evansia, Exochosphaeridium, Favilarnax, Galea, Gillinia, Gonyaulacales, Gymnodinium, Heliodinium, Heteraulacacysta, Heterocapsaceae, Histiophora, Horologinella, Hystrichokibotium, Hystrichosphaeropsis, Invertocysta, Kofoidopsis, Komewuia, Lithodinia, Lithoperidinium, Membranophoridium, Millioudodinium, Multiplicisphaeridium, Nannoceratopsiaceae, Nannoceratopsiella, Nelsoniella, Odontochitinopsis, Oodnadattia, Ovoidinium, Palaeoglenodinium, Palaeoperidinioideae, Palaeotetradinium, Paleopedicystus, Palmnickia, Pareodiniaceae, Pentafidia, Peridiniales, Peridinites, Phanerodinium, Polyedryxium, Polykrikaceae, Polystephanephorus, Polystephanosphaera, Priscogalea, Prolixosphaeridium, Pseudodeflandrea, Ptychodiscales, Pulvinosphaeridium, Raphidodinium, Rottnestia, Samlandia, Scriniocassis, Spherites, Spiniferites, Stephanelytron, Suessia, Taeniophora, Teneridinium, Tenua, Ternia, Thoracosphaerales, Toolongia, Triblastula, Trichodinium, Valvaeodinium, Vulcanisphaera, Wallodinium, Wetzeliella, Wetzelodinium, Xenicodinium, Xenikoon
Sister taxa
Ceratocoryaceae, Heterocapsaceae, Nannoceratopsiaceae, Palaeoperidinioideae, Pareodiniaceae, Polykrikaceae

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1927Dinophyceae Fritsch and West
2005Dinophyceae Guler et al. p. 420
2023Dinophyceae González Estebenet and Guler p. 512

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RankNameAuthor
phylumMyzozoa
subphylumDinozoa
superclassDinoflagellata
RankNameAuthor
classDinophyceae
classDinophyceae

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Cl. Dinophyceae Fritsch and West 1927
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Or. Actiniscales Sournia 1984
+
Fm. Actiniscaceae Kützing 1844
+
G. Actiniscus Ehrenberg 1843
G. Cinctactiniscus Dumitrică 1973
G. Foliactiniscus Dumitrică 1973
G. †Actinotheca Cookson and Eisenack 1960
G. †Aiora Cookson and Eisenack 1960
+
Aiora fenestrata Cookson and Eisenack 1960
G. †Algidasphaeridium Matsuoka and Bujak 1988
G. †Anthatractus Deunff 1954
+
Anthatractus insolitus Deunff 1954
G. †Apteodinium Eisenack 1958
+
Apteodinium conjunctum Eisenack and Cookson 1960
Apteodinium deflandrei Clarke and Verdier 1967
Apteodinium granulatum Eisenack 1958
Apteodinium maculatum Eisenack and Cookson 1960
Apteodinium palliatum Stevens 1987
G. Arcticacysta Sangiorgi et al. 2009
G. †Aremoricanium Deunff 1955
+
Aremoricanium rigaudae Deunff 1955
G. †Belodinium Cookson and Eisenack 1960
+
Belodinium dysculum Cookson and Eisenack 1960
Belodinium nereidis Stevens and Helby 1987
G. †Bicarinellum Deflandre 1948
+
Bicarinellum castaninum Deflandre 1948
G. †Broomea Cookson and Eisenack 1958
+
Broomea ramosa Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Broomea simplex Cookson and Eisenack 1958
G. †Calcicarpinium Deflandre 1948
+
Calcicarpinium tetraedricum Deflandre 1948
G. †Calcigonellum Deflandre 1948
+
Calcigonellum unfula Deflandre 1948
G. †Calciogranellum Deflandre 1948
+
Calciogranellum limbatum Deflandre 1948
G. †Calcipterellum Deflandre 1948
+
Calcipterellum colomi Deflandre 1948
G. †Calcisphaerellum Deflandre 1948
+
Calcisphaerellum flosculus Deflandre 1948
G. †Caligodinium Drugg 1970
+
Caligodinium aceras Manum and Cookson 1964
Caligodinium perforatum Guler et al. 2005
G. †Cantulodinium Alberti 1961
+
Cantulodinium speciosum Alberti 1961
Fm. †Ceratocoryaceae Lindemann 1928
+
G. †Maghrebinia Below 1981
G. †Chiropteridium Gocht 1960
+
G. †Cryptarchaeodinium Deflandre 1939
+
G. †Cymatiogalea Deunff 1961
+
Cymatiogalea margaritata Deunff 1961
G. †Danea Drugg 1967
+
Danea californica Drugg 1967
G. †Diconodinium Eisenack and Cookson 1960
+
Diconodinium acutum Jain and Millepied 1971
Diconodinium arcticum Manum and Cookson 1964
Diconodinium cristatum Cookson and Eisenack 1974
Diconodinium davidii Morgan 1975
Diconodinium lurense Guerstein 2005
Diconodinium multispinum Eisenack and Cookson 1960
Diconodinium pelliferum Eisenack and Cookson 1960
Diconodinium psilatum Morgan 1977
Diconodinium pusillum Singh 1971
G. †Dictyopyxidia Eisenack 1961
+
Dictyopyxidia areolata Cookson and Eisenack 1960
Invalid names: Dictyopyxis Cookson and Eisenack 1960 [replaced]
G. †Diornatosphaera Downie 1958
+
Diornatosphaera angusta Downie 1958
G. †Diplotesta Cookson and Eisenack 1960
+
Diplotesta glaessneri Cookson and Eisenack 1960
G. †Disconodinium Eisenack and Cookson 1960
+
Disconodinium multispinum Deflandre and Cookson 1954
G. Distatodinium Eaton 1976
G. †Dollidinium Helby and Stover 1987
G. †Downiesphaeridium Islam 1993
+
G. Echinidinium Zonneveld 1997
G. †Eodinia Eisenack 1936
+
Eodinia pachytheca Eisenack 1936
G. †Evansia Pocock 1972
+
Evansia alaskensis Below 1990
Evansia evittii Jansonius 1986
G. †Exochosphaeridium Davey 1966
+
Exochosphaeridium arnace Davey and Verdier 1976
Exochosphaeridium robustum Blackhouse 1988
G. †Favilarnax Sarjeant 1963
+
Favilarnax ovulum Sarjeant 1963
G. †Galea Maier 1959
+
Galea galea Maier 1959
G. †Gillinia Cookson and Eisenack 1960
+
Gillinia hymenophora Cookson and Eisenack 1960
Or. †Gonyaulacales Taylor 1980
+
Fm. †Areoligeraceae Evitt 1963
+
G. †Adnatosphaeridium Williams and Downie 1966
+
Adnatosphaeridium filiferum Williams and Downie 1969
Adnatosphaeridium multispinosum Williams and Downie 1966
G. †Areoligera Lejeune-Carpentier 1938
+
Areoligera coronata Lejeune-Carpentier 1938
Areoligera senonensis Lejeune-Carpentier 1938
Areoligera volata Drugg 1967
G. †Canningia Cookson and Eisenack 1960
+
Canningia colliveri Cookson and Eisenack 1960
Canningia collivieri Cookson and Eisenak 1960
Canningia minor Cookson and Hughes 1964
Canningia minor psilata Burger 1980
Canningia pistica Helby 1987
Canningia reticulata Cookson and Eisenack 1960
Canningia scabrosa Cookson and Eisenack 1970
Canningia senonica Clarke and Verdier 1967
G. Cassidium Drugg 1967
G. †Circulodinium Alberti 1961
+
Circulodinium brevispinatum Fauconnier 2004
Circulodinium brevispinosum Jansonius 1986
Circulodinium deflandrei Alberti 1961
Circulodinium hirtellum Alberti 1961
G. †Cyclonephelium Deflandre and Cookson 1955
+
Cyclonephelium aerolatum Cookson and Eisenack 1960
Cyclonephelium chabaca Below 1981
Cyclonephelium clathromarginatum Cookson and Eisenack 1962
Cyclonephelium compactum Deflandre and Cookson 1955
Cyclonephelium deconinckii Boltenhagen 1977
Cyclonephelium densebarbatum Cookson and Eisenack 1960
Cyclonephelium distinctum Deflandre and Cookson 1955
Cyclonephelium hughesii Clarke and Verdier 1967
Cyclonephelium hystrix Davey 1978
Cyclonephelium membraniphorum Cookson and Eisenack 1962
G. †Glaphyrocysta Gerlach 1961
+
Glaphyrocysta texta Stover and Evitt 1978
Glaphyrocysta wilsonii Kirsch 1991
G. †Riculacysta Stover 1977
+
Riculacysta perforata Stover 1977
G. †Senoniasphaera Clarke and Verdier 1967
+
Senoniasphaera inornata Stover and Evitt 1978
Senoniasphaera protrusa Clarke and Verdier 1967
Senoniasphaera ptomatis Helby et al. 1987
Senoniasphaera rotundata Clarke and Verdier 1967
G. †Balcattia Cookson and Eisenack 1974
G. †Batiacasphaera Drugg 1970
+
Batiacasphaera angularis Stevens and Helby 1987
Batiacasphaera asperata Backhouse 1987
Batiacasphaera kekerengensis Schioler and Wilson 2004
Batiacasphaera norvickii Lentin and Williams 1989
Batiacasphaera ovata Backhouse 1987
Batiacasphaera scrobiculata Deflandre and Cookson 1955
Batiacasphaera subtilis Stover and Helby 1987
G. †Bourkidinium Morgan 1975
+
Bourkidinium cylindricum Dolding 1992
Bourkidinium granulatum Morgan 1975
Fm. Ceratiaceae Lindemann 1928
+
G. †Aptea Eisenack 1958
+
Aptea attadalica Cookson and Eisenak 1962
Aptea polymorpha Eisenack 1958
G. †Muderongia Cookson and Eisenack 1958
+
Muderongia australis Helby 1987
Muderongia brachialis Ottone and Pérez 2002
Muderongia endovata Riding et al. 2001
Muderongia mcwhaei Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Muderongia neocomica Helby 1987
Muderongia pariata Duxbury 1983
Muderongia siciliana Torricelli 1997
Muderongia simplex Alberti 1961
Muderongia staurota Sarjeant 1966
Muderongia testudinaria Burger 1980
Muderongia tetracantha Alberti 1961
Muderongia tomaszowensis Alberti 1961
G. †Odontochitina Deflandre 1935
+
Odontochitina costata Alberti 1961
Odontochitina cribropoda Deflandre and Cookson 1955
Odontochitina imparilis Jain and Khowaja-Ateequzzaman 1984
Odontochitina indigena Marshall 1988
Odontochitina operculata Deflandre 1935
Odontochitina porifera Cookson 1956
Odontochitina singhii Morgan 1980
Odontochitina spinosa Wilson 1984
G. †Phoberocysta Millioud 1969
+
Phoberocysta burgeri Helby 1987
Phoberocysta neocomica Millioud 1969
G. †Pseudoceratium Gocht 1957
+
Pseudoceratium ludbrookiae Eisenack 1961
Pseudoceratium polymorphum Eisenack 1958
Pseudoceratium turneri Cookson and Eisenack 1958
G. †Vesperopsis Bint 1986
G. †Xenascus Cookson and Eisenack
+
Xenascus australensis Cookson and Eisenack 1969
Xenascus australis Cookson and Eisenack 1960
Xenascus ceratioides Lentin and Williams 1973
Xenascus ghanaensis Masure et al. 1998
Xenascus gochtii Stover and Evitt 1978
Xenascus perforatum Lentin and Vozzhennikova 1990
Xenascus plotei Below 1981
Xenascus sarjeantii Stover and Evitt 1978
G. Cerebrocysta Bujak et al. 1980
G. †Chlamydophorella Cookson and Eisenack 1958
+
Chlamydophorella discreta Clarke and Verdier 1967
Chlamydophorella nyei Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Chlamydophorella wallala Cookson and Eisenack 1960
Fm. †Cladopyxiaceae Stein 1883
+
G. †Cladopyxidium McLean 1972
G. †Druggidium Habib 1973
+
Druggidium deflandrei Habib 1973
G. Enneadocysta Stover and Williams 1995
G. Histiocysta Davey 1969
G. †Microdinium Cookson and Eisenack 1960
+
Microdinium cassiculum Wilson 1984
Microdinium crinitum Davey 1969
Microdinium densigranulatum Lentin and Williams 1989
Microdinium ornatum Cookson and Eisenack 1960
G. †Cleistosphaeridium Davey 1966
+
Cleistosphaeridium ancoriferum Davey et al. 1966
Cleistosphaeridium polypes Cookson and Eisenak 1962
G. †Dapsilidinium Bujak 1980
+
Dapsilidinium ambiguum Wheeler and Sarjeant 1990
Dapsilidinium duma Lentin and Williams 1985
Dapsilidinium laminaspinosum Davey and Williams 1966
G. †Dingodinium Cookson and Eisenack 1958
+
Dingodinium albertii Sarjeant 1966
Dingodinium cerviculum Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Dingodinium jurassicum Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Dingodinium swanense Stover and Helby 1987
G. †Dissimulidinium May et al. 1987
G. †Ellipsoidictyum Klement 1960
+
Ellipsoidictyum cinctum Klement 1960
G. †Elytrocysta Stover and Evitt 1978
+
Elytrocysta circulata Stover and Helby 1987
G. †Epiplosphaera Klement 1960
+
Epiplosphaera gochtii Brenner 1988
G. †Flamingoia Stevens and Helby 1987
+
Flamingoia cometa Stevens and Helby 1987
G. †Fusiformacysta Morgan 1975
+
Fusiformacysta salasii Morgan 1975
Fusiformacysta tumida Backhouse 1988
G. †Gardodinium Alberti 1961
+
Gardodinium attenuatum Stover and Helby 1987
Gardodinium eisenacki Alberti 1961
Gardodinium lowii Blackhouse 1987
Fm. †Goniodomaceae Lindemann 1928
+
G. Alisocysta Stover and Evitt 1978
+
Alisocysta circumtabulata Stover and EvitT 1978
Alisocysta margarita Harland 1979
G. †Dinopterygium Deflandre 1935
+
Dinopterygium cladoides Deflandre 1935
Dinopterygium tuberculatum Stover and Evitt 1978
G. †Eisenackia Deflandre and Cookson 1955
+
Eisenackia crassitabulata Deflandre and Cookson 1955
G. †Geonettia De Verteuil and Norris 1996
G. †Homotryblium Davey and Williams 1966
G. †Hystrichosphaeridium Deflandre 1936
+
Hystrichosphaeridium anthophorum Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Hystrichosphaeridium arundum Eisenack and Cookson 1960
Hystrichosphaeridium assamicum Sah et al. 1970
Hystrichosphaeridium cambayense Varma and Dangwal 1964
Hystrichosphaeridium capitatum Cookson and Eisenack 1960
Hystrichosphaeridium complex Deflandre 1946
Hystrichosphaeridium dictyophorum Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Hystrichosphaeridium grandis Salujha et al. 1969
Hystrichosphaeridium lateraliprocessum Srivastava and Banerjee 1969
Hystrichosphaeridium mineralosum Varma and Dangwal 1964
Hystrichosphaeridium pachydermum Cookson and Eisenack 1960
Hystrichosphaeridium paracostatum Cookson and Eisenack 1974
Hystrichosphaeridium parvispinum Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Hystrichosphaeridium perifurcatus Salujha et al. 1969
Hystrichosphaeridium perplexum Varma and Dangwal 1964
Hystrichosphaeridium recurvatum Lejeune-Carpentier 1940
Hystrichosphaeridium robustum Sah et al. 1970
Hystrichosphaeridium senii Srivastava and Banerjee 1969
Hystrichosphaeridium siphoniphorum Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Hystrichosphaeridium torynum Cookson and Eisenack 1960
Hystrichosphaeridium truswelliae Wrenn and Hart 1988
Hystrichosphaeridium tubiferum brevispinum Davey and Williams 1966
G. †Taleisphaera Duxbury 1979
+
Taleisphaera hydra Duxbury 1979
Fm. †Gonyaulacaceae Lindemann 1928
+
G. †Achilleodinium Eaton 1976
+
Achilleodinium bianii Hultberg 1985
G. †Achomosphaera Evitt 1963
+
Achomosphaera cambra Sah et al. 1970
Achomosphaera convexa Sah et al. 1970
Achomosphaera delicata Sah et al. 1970
Achomosphaera globulata Sah et al. 1970
Achomosphaera operculata Sah et al. 1970
Achomosphaera ramulifera Deflandre 1937
Achomosphaera robusta Sah et al. 1970
Achomosphaera sagena Davey and Williams 1966
Achomosphaera triangulata Davey and Williams 1969
Achomosphaera valianta Sah et al. 1970
Achomosphaera verdieri Below 1982
G. †Amiculosphaera Harland 1979
G. †Amphorosphaeridium Davey 1969
G. †Araneosphaera Eaton 1976
G. Areosphaeridium Eaton 1971
G. †Ataxiodinium Reid 1974
G. †Atlantodinium Zotto et al. 1987
G. †Avellodinium Blackhouse 1988
+
Avellodinium lepidum Blackhouse 1988
G. Bitectatodinium Wilson 1973
G. †Cannosphaeropsis Wetzel 1933
+
Cannosphaeropsis aemula Deflandre 1947
Cannosphaeropsis aemula integra Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Cannosphaeropsis apiculata Cookson and Eisenack 1960
Cannosphaeropsis fenestrata Deflandre and Cookson 1955
Cannosphaeropsis filamentosa Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Cannosphaeropsis mirabilis Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Cannosphaeropsis utinensis filifera Cookson and Eisenack 1958
G. †Carduifolia Hovasse 1932
G. †Cassiculosphaeridia Davey 1969
+
Cassiculosphaeridia delicata Stover and Helby 1987
G. †Chytroeisphaeridia Downie et al. 1963
+
G. †Cometodinium Deflandre and Courteville 1940
+
Cometodinium comatum Srivastava 1984
Cometodinium obscurum Deflandre and Courteville 1939
Cometodinium whitei Deflandre and Courteville 1939
G. †Conneximura May 1980
G. †Cordosphaeridium Eisenack 1963
+
Cordosphaeridium fibrospinosum Davey and Williams 1966
Cordosphaeridium inodes Sarjeant 1981
G. †Coronifera Cookson and Eisenack 1958
+
Coronifera albertii Millioud 1969
Coronifera kirae Prössl 1992
Coronifera oceanica Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Coronifera striolata Stover and Evitt 1978
Coronifera tubulosa Cookson and Eisenak 1974
G. †Corradinisphaeridium Masure 1986
+
G. Corrudinium Stover and Evitt 1978
G. †Cousteaudinium De Verteuil and Norris 1996
G. †Cribroperidinium Neale and Sarjeant 1962
+
Cribroperidinium edwarsii Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Cribroperidinium graemei Williams et al. 1998
Cribroperidinium muderongense Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Cribroperidinium reticulatum Quattrocchio and Volkheimer 1985
Cribroperidinium sepimentum Neale and Sarjeant 1962
G. †Ctenidodinium Deflandre 1939
+
Ctenidodinium elegantulum Millioud 1969
Ctenidodinium ornatum Deflandre 1938
Ctenidodinium tenellum Deflandre 1938
G. †Cyclapophysis Benson 1976
G. †Dalella McMinn and Sun 1994
G. †Damassadinium Fensome et al. 1993
G. †Diphyes Cookson 1965
+
Diphyes cretaceum Jingxian and Wanping 1980
G. †Discorsia Duxbury 1977
+
Discorsia nannus Duxbury 1977
G. †Dissiliodinium Drugg 1978
+
Dissiliodinium caddaense Stover and Helby 1987
Dissiliodinium curiosum Burger and Sarjeant 1995
Dissiliodinium giganteum Feist-Burkhardt 1990
G. Eatonicysta Stover and Evitt 1978
G. †Endoscrinium Klement 1960
+
Endoscrinium campanula Gocht 1959
Endoscrinium galeritum Deflandre 1938
Endoscrinium luridum Gocht 1970
Endoscrinium prolatum Lentin and Williams 1989
G. †Epitricysta Stover and Helby 1987
+
Epitricysta vinckensis Stover and Helby 1987
G. †Escharisphaeridia Erkmen and Sarjeant 1980
G. †Evittosphaerula Manum 1979
G. †Exiguisphaera Duxbury 1979
G. †Fibradinium Morgenroth 1968
+
Fibradinium annetorpense Morgenroth 1968
Fibradinium variculum Stover and Helby 1987
G. †Fibrocysta Stover and Evitt 1978
+
Fibrocysta axialis Eisenack 1965
Fibrocysta bipolaris Stover and Evitt 1978
Fibrocysta radiata Stover and Evitt 1978
G. †Florentinia Davey and Verdier 1973
+
Florentinia berran Below 1982
Florentinia clavigera Davey and Verdier 1973
Florentinia cooksoniae Singh 1971
Florentinia deanei Davey and Williams 1966
Florentinia ferox Duxbury 1980
Florentinia laciniata Davey and Verdier 1973
Florentinia mantellii Davey and Verdier 1973
Florentinia radiculata Davey and Verdier 1973
Florentinia resex Davey and Verdier 1976
G. †Galeacysta Corradini and Biffi 1988
G. †Gelatia Bujak 1984
G. †Gonyaulacysta Deflandre 1964
+
Gonyaulacysta cassidata Eisenack and Cookson 1960
Gonyaulacysta dualis Stover and Evitt 1978
Gonyaulacysta fastigiata Duxbury 1977
Gonyaulacysta helicoidea Eisenack and Cookson 1960
Gonyaulacysta jurassica Deflandre 1964
Gonyaulacysta nuciformis Deflandre 1939
Gonyaulacysta palla Sarjeant 1966
G. †Gonyaulax Diesing 1866
+
Gonyaulax ambigua Deflandre 1941
Gonyaulax apionis Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Gonyaulax bulloidea Cookson and Eisenack 1960
Gonyaulax clathrata Cookson and Eisenack 1960
Gonyaulax diaphanis Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Gonyaulax edwardsi Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Gonyaulax eisenacki Deflandre 1938
Gonyaulax eisenacki oligodentata Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Gonyaulax eumorpha Cookson and Eisenack 1960
Gonyaulax hyalodermopsis Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Gonyaulax jurassica Deflandre 1938
Gonyaulax muderongensis Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Gonyaulax perforans Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Gonyaulax scotti Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Gonyaulax serrata Cookson and Eisenack 1958
G. †Habibacysta Head et al. 1989
G. †Hafniasphaera Hansen 1977
+
Hafniasphaera australis Guler et al. 2005
Hafniasphaera delicata Fensome 2009
Hafniasphaera fluens Hansen 1977
G. †Hapsocysta Davey 1979
+
Hapsocysta peridictya Eisenack and Cookson 1960
G. Hemiplacophora Cookson and Eisenack 1965
G. †Heterosphaeridium Cookson and Eisenack 1969
+
Heterosphaeridium conjunctum Cookson and Eisenack 1968
Heterosphaeridium dificile Ioannides 1986
Heterosphaeridium heteracanthum Eisennack and Kjellström 1972
G. †Hystrichodinium Deflandre 1935
+
Hystrichodinium amphiacanthum Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Hystrichodinium compactum Alberti 1961
Hystrichodinium oligacanthum Deflandre and Cookson 1955
Hystrichodinium pulchrum Deflandre 1935
Hystrichodinium pulchrum densispinum Lentin and Williams 1973
Hystrichodinium ramoides Alberti 1961
G. †Hystrichokolpoma Klumpp 1953
+
Hystrichokolpoma bulbosum Morgenroth 1968
Hystrichokolpoma cinctum Klumpp 1953
Hystrichokolpoma proprium Foucher 2004
Hystrichokolpoma rigaudiae Deflandre and Cookson 1955
G. †Hystrichosphaerina Alberti 1961
+
G. †Impagidinium Stover and Evitt 1978
+
Impagidinium celineae Jan du Chene 1988
Impagidinium cristatum Lentin and Williams 1981
G. †Kaiwaradinium Wilson 1978
+
Kaiwaradinium scrutillinum Blackhouse 1987
G. †Kallosphaeridium De Coninck 1969
+
Kallosphaeridium yorubaense Jan du Chene and Adediran 1985
G. †Kenleyia Cookson and Eisenak 1965
+
Kenleyia lophophora Cookson and Eisenak 1965
Kenleyia pachycerata Cookson and Eisenak 1965
G. †Kiokansium Below 1982
+
Kiokansium polypes Below 1982
Kiokansium unituberculatum Stover and Evitt 1978
G. †Kleithriasphaeridium Davey 1974
+
Kleithriasphaeridium tubulosum Stover and Evitt 1978
G. †Lanternosphaeridium Morgenroth 1966
Subfm. †Leptodinioideae Fensome et al. 1993
+
G. †Amphorula Dodekova 1969
G. †Carpodinium Cookson and Eisenack 1962
+
Carpodinium granulatum Cookson and Eisenack 1962
G. †Cernicysta Stover and Helby 1987
G. †Cymososphaeridium Davey 1982
G. †Egmontodinium Gitmez and Sarjeant 1972
+
Egmontodinium polyplacophorum Gitmez and Sarjeant 1973
Egmontodinium toryna Davey 1979
Egmontodinium torynum Davey 1979
G. †Lanterna Dodekova 1969
G. †Occisucysta Gitmez 1970
+
Occisucysta tentoria Jan du Chene 1986
G. †Omatia Cookson and Eisenack 1958
+
Omatia montgomeryi Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Omatia pisciformis Cookson and Eisenack 1958
G. †Spiniferella Stover and Hardenbol 1994
+
Spiniferella cornuta Gerlach 1961
G. †Leptodinium Klement 1960
+
Leptodinium ambiguum Helenes 1984
Leptodinium asymmetricum Morgan 1980
Leptodinium cancellatum Brideaux and McIntyre 1975
Leptodinium eumorphum Sarjeant 1969
Leptodinium flammeolum Morgan 1980
Leptodinium mirabile Klement 1960
Leptodinium ovum Sah et al. 1970
Leptodinium simplex Burger 1980
Leptodinium subtile Klement 1960
G. †Liesbergia Berger 1986
+
Liesbergia abdounensis Soncini 1992
G. †Lingulodinium Wall 1967
+
Lingulodinium hemicystum McMinn 1991
G. Litosphaeridium Davey and Williams 1966
+
Litosphaeridium conispinum Davey and Verdier 1973
Litosphaeridium siphoniphorum Davey and Williams 1966
G. †Meiourogonyaulax Sarjeant 1966
+
G. Melitasphaeridium Harland et al. 1979
G. Nematosphaeropsis Deflandre and Cookson 1955
+
Nematosphaeropsis balcombiana Deflandre and Cookson 1955
Nematosphaeropsis densiradiata Stover and Evitt 1978
G. †Nexosispinum Davey 1979
G. Ochetodinium Damassa 1979
G. †Oligosphaeridium Davey and Williams 1966
+
Oligosphaeridium albertense Davey and Williams 1969
Oligosphaeridium anthophorum Cookson and Eisenak 1958
Oligosphaeridium asterigerum Davey and Williams 1969
Oligosphaeridium cephalum Sah et al. 1970
Oligosphaeridium complex Davey and Williams 1966
Oligosphaeridium dictyophorum Cookson and Eisenak 1958
Oligosphaeridium dividuum Williams 1978
Oligosphaeridium porosum Lentin and Williams 1981
Oligosphaeridium pulcherrimum Davey and Williams 1966
Oligosphaeridium pulcherrimun Davey and Williams 1966
Oligosphaeridium totum Brideaux 1971
G. Operculodinium Wall 1967
+
Operculodinium baculatum Yu Jingxian and Zhang Wangping 1980
G. †Perisseiasphaeridium Davey and Williams 1966
+
Perisseiasphaeridium inusitatum Stevens and Helby 1987
Perisseiasphaeridium pannosum Davey and Williams 1966
G. †Pervosphaeridium Yun and Hyesu 1981
+
G. †Protoellipsodinium Davey and Verdier 1971
+
G. †Psaligonyaulax Sarjeant 1966
+
Psaligonyaulax apatela Cookson and Eisenak 1960
Psaligonyaulax deflandrei Sarjeant 1966
G. †Pterodinium Eisenack 1958
+
Pterodinium aliferum Eisenack 1958
Pterodinium cingulatum Below 1981
Pterodinium cornutum Cookson and Eisenack 1962
Pterodinium cretaceum Slimani 2008
G. Pyxidinopsis Habib 1976
G. †Rhynchodiniopsis Deflandre 1935
+
Rhynchodiniopsis aptiana Deflandre 1935
Rhynchodiniopsis serrata Du Chene et al. 1985
G. †Rigaudella Below 1982
+
Rigaudella aemula Below 1982
G. †Saturnodinium Brinkhuis et al. 1992
G. †Scriniodinium Klement 1957
+
Scriniodinium apatelum Cookson and Eisenack 1960
Scriniodinium attadalense Eisenack 1967
Scriniodinium ceratophorum Cookson and Eisenack 1960
Scriniodinium dictyotum Cookson and Eisenack 1960
Scriniodinium kempiae Stover and Helby 1987
Scriniodinium luridum Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Scriniodinium playfordi Cookson and Eisenack 1960
G. †Sentusidinium Sarjeant and Stover 1978
+
Sentusidinium aptiense Burger 1980
Sentusidinium pilosum Ehrenberg 1854
G. †Sirmiodiniopsis Drugg 1978
+
Sirmiodiniopsis frisia Lentin and Williams 1981
G. †Sirmiodinium Alberti 1961
+
Sirmiodinium grossii Alberti 1961
G. †Stephodinium Deflandre 1936
+
Stephodinium coronatum Deflandre 1936
G. †Stiphrosphaeridium Davey 1982
+
Stiphrosphaeridium anthophorum Lentin and Williams 1985
G. †Surculosphaeridium Davey 1966
+
G. †Systematophora Klement 1960
+
Systematophora areolata Klement 1960
Systematophora complicata Neale and Sarjeant 1962
Systematophora palmula Davey 1982
Systematophora penicillata Sarjeant 1980
Systematophora silyba Davey 1979
Systematophora valensii Sarjeant 1961
G. †Tehamadinium Jan du Chene et al. 1986
+
Tehamadinium sousensis Jan du Chene 1986
G. †Thalassiphora Eisenack and Gocht 1960
+
Thalassiphora pelagica Eisenack 1954
G. †Tubotuberella Vozzhennikova 1967
+
Tubotuberella apatela Ioannides et al. 1977
Tubotuberella missilis Stover and Helby 1987
Tubotuberella vlamingii Blackhouse 1987
G. †Unipontidinium Wrenn 1988
+
Unipontidinium grande Wrenn 1988
G. †Wanaea Cookson and Eisenack 1958
+
Wanaea acollaris Dodekova 1975
Wanaea clathrata Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Wanaea digitata Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Wanaea spectabilis Cookson and Eisenack 1958
G. †Wilsonisphaera Slimani 1994
+
Wilsonisphaera petila Corradini 1973
G. †Yalkalpodinium Morgan 1980
+
Yalkalpodinium scutum Morgan 1980
G. †Heslertonia Sarjeant
+
Heslertonia striata Eisenack and Cookson 1960
+
G. †Conosphaeridium Cookson and Eisenack 1969
+
Conosphaeridium striatoconum Cookson and Eisenack 1969
G. Hystrichostrogylon Agelopoulos 1964
G. †Impletosphaeridium Morgenroth 1966
+
G. Labyrinthodinium Piasecki 1980
G. Lophocysta Manum 1979
G. †Membranilarnacia Eisenack 1963
+
Membranilarnacia angustivela Deflandre and Cookson 1955
Membranilarnacia leptoderma Eisenack 1963
Membranilarnacia picena Biffi and Manum 1988
Membranilarnacia polycladiata Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Membranilarnacia tenella Morgenroth 1968
G. †Membranilarnax Wetzell 1933
+
Membranilarnax leptoderma Cookson and Eisenack 1958
G. †Moorodinium Blackhouse 1988
G. †Papuadinium Davey 1988
G. †Paucisphaeridium Bujak et al. 1980
G. †Peridictyocysta Cookson and Eisenack 1974
+
Peridictyocysta mirabilis Cookson and Eisenack 1974
G. †Productodinium Davey 1988
+
Productodinium chenii Davey 1988
G. †Reticulatosphaera Matsuoka 1983
+
Reticulatosphaera actinocoronata Bujak and Matsuoka 1986
Fm. †Shublikodiniaceae Wiggins 1973
+
G. †Rhaetogonyaulax Sarjeant 1966
+
Rhaetogonyaulax wigginsii Lentin and Williams 1989
G. †Tanyosphaeridium Davey and Williams 1966
+
Tanyosphaeridium isocalamum Davey and Williams 1969
Tanyosphaeridium isocalamus Cookson and Eisenak 1958
Tanyosphaeridium magneticum Torricelli 2000
Tanyosphaeridium salpinx Norvick 1976
Tanyosphaeridium variecalamum Davey and Williams 1966
Tanyosphaeridium xanthiopyxides Stover and Evitt 1978
G. †Tetrachacysta Blackhouse 1988
+
Tetrachacysta allenii Blackhouse 1988
Tetrachacysta spinosigibberosa Blackhouse 1988
G. †Valensiella Eisenack 1963
+
Valensiella delicata Lentin and Williams 1993
Valensiella griphus Norvick 1976
Valensiella magna Courtinant 1989
Valensiella ovulum Eisenack 1963
Valensiella pygmaeus Lentin and Williams 1993
G. †Xiphophoridium Sarjeant 1966
+
Xiphophoridium alatum Sarjeant 1966
G. †Gymnodinium Stein 1898
+
Gymnodinium attadalense Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Gymnodinium crystallinum Deflandre 1938
Gymnodinium heterocostatum Deflandre 1935
Gymnodinium luridum Deflandre 1939
Gymnodinium nelsonense Cookson 1956
Gymnodinium parvigranulatum Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Gymnodinium westralium Cookson and Eisenack 1958
G. †Heliodinium Alberti 1961
+
Heliodinium voigti Alberti 1961
G. †Heteraulacacysta Drugg and Loeblich 1967
+
Heteraulacacysta campanula Bujak and Matsuoka 1986
Fm. †Heterocapsaceae Fensome 1993
+
G. †Andreedinium Below 1987
+
Andreedinium erregulensis Filatoff 1975
G. †Histiophora Klement 1960
+
Histiophora ornata Klement 1960
G. †Horologinella Cookson and Eisenack 1962
+
Horologinella apiculata Cookson and Eisenack 1962
Horologinella lineata Cookson and Eisenack 1962
G. †Hystrichokibotium Klumpp 1953
+
G. †Hystrichosphaeropsis Deflandre 1935
+
Hystrichosphaeropsis ovum Deflandre 1935
G. Invertocysta Edwards 1984
G. †Kofoidopsis Tasch 1963
+
Kofoidopsis coronata Tasch 1963
G. †Komewuia Cookson and Eisenack 1960
+
Komewuia glabra Cookson and Eisenack 1960
G. †Lithodinia Eisenack 1935
+
Lithodinia bulloidea Gocht 1976
Lithodinia diaphanus Williams et al. 1993
Lithodinia jurassica Eisenack 1935
G. †Lithoperidinium Deflandre 1933
+
Lithoperidinium oamaruense Deflandre 1933
G. †Membranophoridium Gerlach 1961
+
G. Millioudodinium Stover and Evitt 1978
G. †Multiplicisphaeridium Staplin 1961
+
Fm. †Nannoceratopsiaceae Gocht 1970
+
G. †Nannoceratopsis Deflandre 1939
+
Nannoceratopsis pellucida Deflandre 1938
G. †Nannoceratopsiella Tasch 1963
+
G. †Nelsoniella Cookson and Eisenack 1960
+
Nelsoniella aceras Cookson and Eisenack 1960
Nelsoniella semireticulata Cookson and Eisenack 1960
Nelsoniella tuberculata Cookson and Eisenack 1960
G. †Odontochitinopsis Eisenack 1961
+
Odontochitinopsis molesta Eisenack 1961
G. †Oodnadattia Eisenack and Cookson 1960
+
Oodnadattia tuberculata Eisenack and Cookson 1960
G. †Ovoidinium Davey 1970
+
Ovoidinium cinctum Davey 1970
Ovoidinium ovale Lentin and Williams 1976
G. †Palaeoglenodinium Deflandre 1934
+
Palaeoglenodinium cretaceum Deflandre 1934
Fm. †Palaeoperidinioideae Bujak and Davies 1983
+
G. †Chichaouadinium Below 1981
+
Chichaouadinium boydii Bujak and Davies 1983
G. †Ginginodinium Cookson and Eisenack 1960
+
Ginginodinium spinulosum Cookson and Eisenack 1960
G. †Palaeotetradinium Deflandre 1936
+
Palaeotetradinium silicorum Deflandre 1936
G. †Paleopedicystus Staplin 1961
+
G. †Palmnickia Eisenack 1954
+
Palmnickia lobifera Eisenack 1954
Fm. †Pareodiniaceae Gocht 1957
+
G. †Aprobolocysta Duxbury 1977
+
Aprobolocysta alata Blackhouse 1987
Aprobolocysta bipartita Blackhouse 1987
Aprobolocysta galeata Blackhouse 1987
G. †Batioladinium Brideaux 1975
+
Batioladinium jaegeri Brideaux 1975
Batioladinium longicornutum Brideaux 1975
Batioladinium micropodum Eisenack and Cookson 1960
Batioladinium pomum Davey 1982
Batioladinium reticulatum Stover and Helby 1987
G. †Kalyptea Cookson and Eisenack 1960
+
Kalyptea diceras Cookson and Eisenack 1960
Kalyptea monoceras Cookson and Eisenack 1960
Kalyptea wisemaniae Stover and Helby 1987
G. †Pareodinia Deflandre 1947
+
Pareodinia aphelia Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Pareodinia ceratophora Deflandre 1947
G. †Pentafidia Blackhouse 1988
Or. Peridiniales Haeckel 1894
+
G. †Aireiana Cookson and Eisenack 1965
G. †Angustidinium Goodman and Evitt 1981
G. †Arachnodinium Wilson 1982
G. †Barssidinium Lentin et al. 1994
G. †Bitorus Keupp 1992
G. †Blysmatodinium McMinn 1992
Fm. †Deflandreaceae Eisenack 1954
+
G. †Abratopdinium Mao and Mohr 1992
G. †Kisselovia Vozzhennikova 1963
G. †Palaeocystodinium Alberti 1961
+
Palaeocystodinium australinum Lentin and Williams 1976
Palaeocystodinium granulatum Lentin and Williams 1976
Palaeocystodinium microgranulatum Jain and Millepied 1971
Palaeocystodinium punctatum Jain and Millepied 1971
Palaeocystodinium rhomboides Lentin and Williams 1973
G. †Spinidinium Cookson and Eisenack 1962
+
Spinidinium boydii Morgan 1975
Spinidinium echinoideum Lentin and Williams 1976
Spinidinium lanterna Cookson and Eisenack 1970
Spinidinium macmurdoense Lentin and Williams 1976
Spinidinium styloniferum Cookson and Eisenack 1962
G. †Herendeenia Wiggins 1969
+
Herendeenia postprojecta Stover and Helby 1987
G. †Laciniadinium McIntyre 1975
+
G. Multispinula Bradford 1975
G. †Noricysta Bujak and Fisher 1976
G. †Octodinium Wrenn and Hart 1988
G. Pentapharsodinium Indelicato and Loeblich 1986
Fm. †Peridiniaceae Ehrenberg 1832
+
G. Alterbia Lentin and Williams 1976
G. †Alterbidinium Lentin and Williams 1985
+
Alterbidinium acutulum Lentin and Williams 1985
Alterbidinium minus Lentin and Williams 1985
Alterbidinium varium Kirsch 1991
G. †Andalusiella Riegel 1974
+
Andalusiella gabonensis Wrenn and Hart 1988
Andalusiella ivoirensis Masure 1996
Andalusiella mauthei Riegel 1974
+
Andalusiella rhomboides Lentin and Williams 1980
Andalusiella spinosa Guler et al. 2005
G. †Ascodinium Cookson and Eisenack 1960
+
Ascodinium acrophorum Cookson and Eisenack 1960
Ascodinium ovale Cookson and Eisenack 1970
Ascodinium scabrosum Cookson and Hughes 1964
Ascodinium serratum Cookson and Eisenack 1960
G. †Astrocysta Davey 1970
+
Astrocysta cretacea Davey 1970
Invalid names: Palaeoperidinium Deflandre 1934 [synonym]
G. Brigantedinium Reid 1977
G. †Cepadinium Duxbury 1983
+
Cepadinium ventriosum Lentin and Williams 1989
G. †Cerodinium Vozzhennikova 1963
+
Cerodinium albertii Lentin and Williams 1987
Cerodinium diebelii Lentin and Williams 1987
Cerodinium granulostriatum Lentin and Williams 1987
Cerodinium leptodermum Lentin and Williams 1987
Cerodinium medcalfi Lentin and Williams 1987
Cerodinium obliquipes Deflandre and Cookson 1955
Cerodinium striatum Lentin and Williams 1987
Cerodinium subquadrum Corradini 1973
G. †Charlesdowniea Lentin and Vozzhennikova 1989
G. †Chatangiella Vozzhennikova 1967
+
Chatangiella campbellensis Lentin and Williams 1976
Chatangiella madura Lentin and Williams 1976
Chatangiella multispinosa Lentin and Williams 1976
Chatangiella packhamii Marshall 1990
Chatangiella serratula Lentin and Williams 1976
Chatangiella tripartita Lentin and Williams 1976
G. †Craspedodinium Cookson and Eisenak 1974
G. †Deflandrea Eisenack 1938
+
Deflandrea acuminata Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Deflandrea antarctica Wilson 1967
Deflandrea cincta Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Deflandrea galeata Lejeune-Carpentier 1942
Deflandrea granulata Menéndez 1965
Deflandrea korojonensis Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Deflandrea minor Alberti 1959
Deflandrea parva Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Deflandrea pellucida Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Deflandrea phosphoritica Eisenack 1938
Deflandrea serratula Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Invalid names: Senegalinium Jain and Millepied 1973 [synonym]
G. †Dioxya Cookson and Eisenack 1958
+
Dioxya armata Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Dioxya villosa Cookson and Eisenak 1958
G. †Epelidosphaeridia Davey 1969
G. †Eucladinium Stover and Evitt 1978
+
Eucladinium gambangense Stover and Evitt 1978
Eucladinium madurense Stover and Evitt 1978
Eucladinium spinosissimum Stover and Evitt 1978
G. †Geiselodinium Krutzsch 1962
+
Geiselodinium geiseltalense Krutzsch 1962
Geiselodinium psilatum Jain and Millepied 1971
G. Glenodinium Ehrenberg 1836
G. †Heibergella Bujak and Fisher 1976
G. †Hexagonifera Cookson and Eisenack 1961
+
Hexagonifera chlamydata Cookson and Eisenak 1962
Hexagonifera glabra Cookson and Eisenack 1961
G. †Holmwoodinium Batten 1985
+
Holmwoodinium notatum Batten 1985
G. †Isabelidinium Lentin and Williams 1977
+
Isabelidinium acuminatum Stover and Evitt 1978
Isabelidinium amphiatum Lentin and Williams 1977
Isabelidinium bakeri Lentin and Williams 1977
Isabelidinium belfastense Lentin and Williams 1976
Isabelidinium cooksoniae Lentin and Williams 1977
Isabelidinium cretaceum Lentin and Williams 1977
Isabelidinium glabrum Lentin and Williams 1977
Isabelidinium korojonense Lentin and Williams 1977
Isabelidinium microarmum Lentin and Williams 1977
Isabelidinium papillum Sumner 1992
Isabelidinium pellucidum Lentin and Williams 1977
Isabelidinium ponticum Marshall 1988
Isabelidinium thomasii Lentin and Williams 1976
G. †Leberidocysta Stover and Evitt 1978
+
Leberidocysta chlamydata Stover and Evitt 1978
Leberidocysta defloccata Davey and Verdier 1973
G. Lentinia Bujak et al. 1980
G. †Maduradinium Cookson and Eisenak 1970
G. †Manumiella Bujak and Davies 1983
+
Manumiella bertodano Thorn 2009
Manumiella complex Marenssi et al. 2004
Manumiella conorata Bujak and Davies 1983
Manumiella cretacea Bujak and Davies 1983
Manumiella druggii Stover 1974
Manumiella lata Bujak and Davies 1983
Manumiella seelandica Bujak and Davies 1983
G. †Muiriella Churchill and Sarjeant 1962
+
Muiriella plioplax Churchill and Sarjeant 1962
G. †Obliquipithonella Keupp and Mutterlose 1984
G. †Orthopithonella Keupp and Mutterlose 1984
G. †Palaeohystrichophora Deflandre 1935
+
Palaeohystrichophora dispersa Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Palaeohystrichophora isodiametrica Cookson and Eisenack 1958
Palaeohystrichophora pellifera Cookson and Eisenack 1958
G. †Peridinium Ehrenberg 1830
+
Peridinium limbatum Lemmermann 1899
G. Phthanoperidinium Drugg and Loeblich 1967
G. †Pierceites Habib and Drugg 1987
+
Pierceites pentagonus Habib and Drugg 1987
G. †Pithonella Lorenz 1902
G. †Pyxidiella Cookson and Eisenack 1958
+
Pyxidiella pandora Cookson and Eisenack 1958
G. Quinquecuspis Harland 1977
G. †Satyrodinium Lentin and Manum 1986
G. †Subtilisphaera Jain and Millepied 1971
+
Subtilisphaera cheit Below 1981
Subtilisphaera crassiangulosa Jain and Millepied 1971
Subtilisphaera deformans Stover and Evitt 1978
Subtilisphaera perlucida Jain and Millepied 1973
Subtilisphaera pirnaensis Alberti 1959
Subtilisphaera rotundata Jain and Millepied 1973
Subtilisphaera scabrata Jain and Millepied 1971
Subtilisphaera senegalensis Jain and Millepied 1971
Subtilisphaera ventriosa Jain and Millepied 1971
Subtilisphaera zawia Below 1981
G. †Talimudinium Mao and Norris 1988
G. Trinovantedinium Reid 1977
G. †Trithyrodinium Drugg
+
Trithyrodinium druggii Stone 1973
Trithyrodinium vermiculatum Lentin and Williams 1976
G. Votadinium Reid 1977
G. Vozzhennikovia Lentin and Williams 1976
+
Vozzhennikovia angulata Wilson 1988
Vozzhennikovia apertura Lentin and Williams 1976
Vozzhennikovia villosa Eisenack and Cookson 1960
G. Wilsonidium Lentin and Williams 1976
Fm. Protoperidiniaceae Bujak and Davies 1983
+
G. †Capillicysta Matsuoka et al. 1987
G. †Cristadinium Head et al. 1989
G. †Dissodium Abé 1941
G. †Erymnodinium Lentin et al. 1994
G. Islandinium Head et al. 2001
G. †Leipokatium Bradford 1975
G. †Lejeunecysta Artzner and Dörhöfer 1978
+
Lejeunecysta cinctoria Lentin and Williams 1981
Lejeunecysta communis Biffi and Grignani 1983
Lejeunecysta globosa Biffi and Grignani 1983
Lejeunecysta pulchra Biffi and Grignani 1983
G. †Malvinia Houben et al. 2011
+
Malvinia escutiana Houben et al. 2011
G. †Phelodinium Stover and Evitt 1978
+
Phelodinium africanum Biffi and Grignani 1983
Phelodinium kozlowskii Lindgren 1984
Phelodinium magnificum Stover and Evitt 1978
Phelodinium nigericum Biffi and Grignani 1983
Phelodinium tricuspe Wetzel 1933
G. Protoperidinium Bergh 1881
G. Selenopemphix Benedek 1972
+
Selenopemphix crenata Matsuoka and Bujak 1988
Selenopemphix dionaeacysta Head et al. 1989
Selenopemphix nephroides Benedek 1972
Selenopemphix warriensis Biffi and Grignani 1983
G. †Stelladinium Bradford 1975
G. †Sumatradinium Lentin and Williams 1976
G. †Xandarodinium Reid 1977
G. Zygabikodinium Loeblich 1970
G. Rhabdothorax Kamptner 1958
G. †Shublikodinium Wiggins 1973
G. †Stoveracysta Clowes 1985
G. †Susadinium Dorhofer and Davies 1980
G. †Tectatodinium Wall 1967
+
Tectatodinium rugulatum McMinn 1988
G. †Tuberculodinium Wall 1967
+
G. †Peridinites Lefevre 1933
+
Peridinites parvulus Lefevre 1933
G. †Phanerodinium Deflandre 1937
+
Phanerodinium cayeuxi Deflandre 1934
G. †Polyedryxium Deunff 1954
+
Polyedryxium deflandrei Deunff 1954
Polyedryxium fragosulum Playford 1977
Fm. Polykrikaceae Kofoid and Swezy 1921
+
G. Polykrikos Bütschli 1873
G. †Polystephanephorus Sarjeant 1961
+
Polystephanephorus calathus Sarjeant 1961
G. †Polystephanosphaera Sarjeant 1960
+
G. †Priscogalea Deunff 1961
+
Priscogalea barbara Deunff 1961
G. †Prolixosphaeridium Davey 1966
+
Prolixosphaeridium inequiornatum Stover and Helby 1987
Prolixosphaeridium mixtispinosum Davey et al. 1969
G. †Pseudodeflandrea Alberti 1959
+
Pseudodeflandrea gigantea Alberti 1959
Or. †Ptychodiscales Fensome 1993
+
Fm. †Ptychodiscaceae Lemmermann 1899
+
G. †Alisogymnium Lentin and Vozzhennikova 1990
G. †Dinogymnium Evitt et al. 1967
+
Dinogymnium acuminatum Evitt 1967
Dinogymnium cretaceum Evitt 1967
Dinogymnium euclaense Cookson and Eisenack 1970
Dinogymnium euclaensis Cookson and Eisenak 1960
Dinogymnium nelsonense Evitt et al. 1967
Dinogymnium vozzhennikovae Lentin and Vozzhennikova 1990
Dinogymnium westralium Evitt 1967
G. †Pulvinosphaeridium Eisenack 1954
+
G. †Raphidodinium Deflandre 1936
+
Raphidodinium fucatum Deflandre 1936
G. †Rottnestia Cookson and Eisenack 1961
+
Rottnestia borussica Cookson and Eisenack 1961
Rottnestia wetzelii Deflandre 1937
G. †Samlandia Eisenack 1954
+
Samlandia chlamydophora Eisenack 1954
G. †Scriniocassis Gocht 1964
+
Scriniocassis weberi Gocht 1964
G. †Spherites Dijkstra 1949
+
Spherites spinosus Dijkstra 1949
G. †Spiniferites Mantell 1850
+
Spiniferites bejuii Masure 1998
Spiniferites chebca Lentin and Williams 1993
Spiniferites cingulatus Sarjeant 1970
Spiniferites cornutus Gerlach 1961
Spiniferites dentatus Gocht 1959
Spiniferites fluens Stover and Williams 1987
Spiniferites hyalospinosus Stover and Williams 1987
Spiniferites hyperacanthus Deflandre and Cookson 1955
Spiniferites lenzii Below 1982
Spiniferites mirabilis Sarjeant 1970
Spiniferites pseudofurcatus Sarjeant 1970
Spiniferites ramosus Lentin and Williams 1973
+
Spiniferites ramosus granomembranaceus Davey and Williams 1966
Spiniferites ramosus multibrevis Davey and Williams 1966
Spiniferites ramosus ramosus Loeblich and Loeblich 1966
Spiniferites ramosus brevifurcatus Lentin and Williams 1977
Spiniferites tripus Singh 1983
G. †Stephanelytron Sarjeant 1961
+
Stephanelytron redcliffense Sarjeant 1961
G. †Suessia Morbey 1975
+
Suessia swabiana Morbey 1975
G. †Taeniophora Klement 1960
+
Taeniophora iunctispina Klement 1960
G. †Teneridinium Krutzsch 1962
+
Teneridinium magnoides Krutzsch 1962
G. †Tenua Eisenack 1958
+
Tenua hystricella Eisenack 1958
Tenua hystrix Eisenack 1958
Tenua taugourdeaui Varma and Dangwal 1964
G. †Ternia Helby and Stover 1987
+
Ternia balmei Helby and Stover 1987
Or. Thoracosphaerales Tangen et al. 1982
+
G. Thoracosphaera Kamptner 1927
+
Thoracosphaera heimii Lohmann 1919
G. †Toolongia Cookson and Eisenack 1960
+
Toolongia medusoides Cookson and Eisenack 1960
G. †Triblastula Wetzel 1933
+
Triblastula utinensis Wetzel 1933
G. †Trichodinium Eisenack and Cookson 1960
+
Trichodinium castanea Clarke and Verdier 1967
+
Trichodinium castanea bifurcatum Jan and Millepied 1975
Trichodinium eisenackii Burger 1980
Trichodinium intermedium Eisenack and Cookson 1960
Trichodinium pellitum Eisenack and Cookson 1960
G. †Valvaeodinium Morgenroth 1970
+
G. †Vulcanisphaera Deunff 1961
+
Vulcanisphaera africana Deunff 1961
G. †Wallodinium Loeblich Jr and Loeblich 1968
+
Wallodinium glaessneri Cookson and Eisenak 1960
Wallodinium krutzschii Habib 1972
Wallodinium luna Lentin and Williams 1973
Wallodinium lunum Lentin and Williams 1973
G. †Wetzeliella Eisenack 1938
+
Wetzeliella articulata Eisenack 1938
Wetzeliella irregularis Cookson and Eisenack 1958
G. †Wetzelodinium Deflandre 1936
+
Wetzelodinium tentaculatum Deflandre 1936
G. †Xenicodinium Klement 1960
+
G. †Xenikoon Cookson and Eisenack 1960
+
Xenikoon australis Cookson and Eisenack 1960
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
No ecological data are available

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Tremadoc to the top of the Late/Upper Pleistocene or 486.50000 to 0.01170 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 485.4 Ma

Collections (676 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Cambrian538.8 - 485.4Finland (Soderfjarden) Vulcanisphaera sp., Hystrichosphaeridium sp., Multiplicisphaeridium sp. (41196)
Tremadoc486.5 - 477.7Spain (Zaragoza) Cymatiogalea sp. (21074 21076) Vulcanisphaera sp., Cymatiogalea sp. (21073)
Hunneberg481.1 - 474.8Russian Federation (St. Petersburg) Cymatiogalea deunfii (191302)
Arenig478.6 - 466.0Spain (Zaragoza) Cymatiogalea sp. (21075)
Ashgill449.5 - 443.7Canada (Quebec) Multiplicisphaeridium bifurcatum, Multiplicisphaeridium irregulare (56000)
Gamachian449.5 - 443.7Canada (Québec) Multiplicisphaeridium denticulatum, Multiplicisphaeridium ravum, Multiplicisphaeridium birminghamensis, Multiplicisphaeridium sp. (24577) Multiplicisphaeridium sp. (24576)
Rhuddanian - Aeronian443.4 - 438.5Norway Multiplicisphaeridium cladum (2911 2912 2913) Multiplicisphaeridium irregulare, Multiplicisphaeridium cladum (2914)
Alexandrian443.4 - 436.0Canada (Québec) Multiplicisphaeridium arbusculiferum, Multiplicisphaeridium paraguaferum, Multiplicisphaeridium fermosum, Multiplicisphaeridium neahgae (24582) Multiplicisphaeridium lobeznum (24581) Multiplicisphaeridium visbyense (24579)
Ludlow427.4 - 423.0Russian Federation (Siberia) Multiplicisphaeridium bonitum (206346)
Lochkovian419.2 - 410.8France (Finistere) Polyedryxium simplex (6162)
Famennian372.2 - 358.9USA (Ohio) Multiplicisphaeridium anastomosis, Multiplicisphaeridium verrucarum (23340)
Permian298.9 - 251.902Germany Polyedryxium kraeuselianum, Polyedryxium sp. (23827)
Leonardian - Zechstein286.0 - 254.14Canada (Alberta) Palaeoperidinium sp. (31477)
Griesbachian - Anisian251.902 - 242.0Canada (Alberta) Palaeoperidinium sp., Multiplicisphaeridium deunffii (31478)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3France (Lorraine) Rhaetogonyaulax rhaetica (36106)
Rhaetian208.5 - 201.3Netherlands Rhaetogonyaulax sp. (137658)
Toarcian182.7 - 174.1Serbia and Montenegro (Montenegro) Nannoceratopsis gracilis (24568)
Toarcian182.7 - 174.1Poland (Cracow) Danea microphylla (24598)
Early/Lower Bajocian171.6 - 168.4United Kingdom (England) Pareodinia ceratophora, Nannoceratopsis senex, Dissiliodinium sp. (38382)
Late/Upper Bajocian171.6 - 167.7Russian Federation (Karachay-Cherkessia) Nannoceratopsis spiculata, Valensiella ovulum, Sentusidinium sp., Endoscrinium luridum, Meiourogonyaulax caytonensis, Meiourogonyaulax valensii, Dissiliodinium sp., Ctenidodinium sellwoodii (198673) Pareodinia ceratophora, Kalyptea stegasta, Nannoceratopsis gracilis, Nannoceratopsis senex, Nannoceratopsis sp., Nannoceratopsis dictyambonis, Nannoceratopsis raunsgaardii, Nannoceratopsis spiculata, Meiourogonyaulax valensii, Rhynchodiniopsis regalis, Tubotuberella spp., Dissiliodinium sp., Ctenidodinium sellwoodii (198674) Pareodinia ceratophora, Nannoceratopsis gracilis, Nannoceratopsis sp., Nannoceratopsis dictyambonis, Nannoceratopsis spiculata, Sentusidinium sp., Meiourogonyaulax caytonensis, Dissiliodinium sp., Ctenidodinium continuum (198680) Pareodinia ceratophora, Nannoceratopsis gracilis, Nannoceratopsis sp., Nannoceratopsis spiculata, Batiacasphaera sp., Meiourogonyaulax caytonensis, Meiourogonyaulax valensii, Dissiliodinium sp., Ctenidodinium sellwoodii (198646) Pareodinia ceratophora, Nannoceratopsis sp., Nannoceratopsis spiculata, Meiourogonyaulax valensii, Tubotuberella spp., Dissiliodinium sp., Kallosphaeridium hypornatum, Ctenidodinium sellwoodii (198645) Pareodinia ceratophora, Nannoceratopsis spiculata, Tubotuberella spp., Dissiliodinium sp., Ctenidodinium sellwoodii (198681) Pareodinia halosa, Pareodinia ceratophora, Nannoceratopsis senex, Nannoceratopsis spiculata, Batiacasphaera sp., Chytroeisphaeridia chytroeides, Endoscrinium galeritum, Meiourogonyaulax caytonensis, Meiourogonyaulax valensii, Dissiliodinium sp., Wanaea acollaris, Ctenidodinium sellwoodii, Ellipsoidictyum cinctum (198643) Pareodinia prolongata, Pareodinia ceratophora, Nannoceratopsis spiculata, Batiacasphaera sp., Valensiella ovulum, Chytroeisphaeridia chytroeides, Sentusidinium sp., Meiourogonyaulax caytonensis, Meiourogonyaulax valensii, Meiourogonyaulax sp., Leptodinium sp., Rhynchodiniopsis regalis, Dissiliodinium sp. (198644) Pareodinia prolongata, Pareodinia halosa, Pareodinia ceratophora, Nannoceratopsis gracilis, Nannoceratopsis spiculata, Batiacasphaera sp., Endoscrinium luridum, Meiourogonyaulax caytonensis, Meiourogonyaulax valensii, Meiourogonyaulax sp., Leptodinium sp., Dissiliodinium sp., Ctenidodinium sellwoodii, Ctenidodinium continuum (198639) Pareodinia prolongata, Valensiella dictydia, Valensiella ovulum, Chytroeisphaeridia chytroeides, Sentusidinium sp., Dissiliodinium sp., Gonyaulacysta pectinigera, Ctenidodinium sellwoodii, Ctenidodinium ornatum (198695)