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Isocrinida

Crinoidea - Isocrinida

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1811Polycerus Fischer von Waldheim p. 28
1952Isocrinida Sieverts-Doreck
1961Isocrinida Rasmussen
1985Isocrinida Jäger p. 93
1994Isocrinida Stilwell et al. p. 138
1998Isocrinida Ausich p. 17
2002Isocrinida Sepkoski
2011Isocrinida Hess and Messing p. 42
2017Isocrinida Wright et al. p. 842

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Bilateria
EubilateriaAx 1987
Deuterostomia
Ambulacraria
phylumEchinodermata
subphylumBlastozoa
classCrinoideaMiller 1821
RankNameAuthor
subclassPentacrinoideaJaekel 1918
infraclassInadunata(Wachsmuth and Springer 1897)
Cladida(Moore and Laudon 1943)
Eucladida
infraorderArticulata(Miller 1821)
orderIsocrinidaSieverts-Doreck 1952
orderIsocrinidaSieverts-Doreck 1952

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Or. Isocrinida Sieverts-Doreck 1952
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Subor. Isocrinina Sieverts-Doreck 1952
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Fm. †Cainocrinidae Simms 1988
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G. †Cainocrinus Forbes 1852
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Cainocrinus tintinnabulum Rasmussen 1972
G. †Nielsenicrinus Rasmussen 1961
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Nielsenicrinus agassizii Hagenow 1840
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Invalid names: Pentacrinites klodenii Hagenow 1840 [synonym]
Nielsenicrinus carinatus Roemer 1840
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Invalid names: Isocrinus courvillensis Valette 1917 [synonym], Isocrinus icaunensis Valette 1917 [synonym]
Nielsenicrinus cretaceus Leymerie 1842
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Invalid names: Pentacrinus fittoni Austin 1845 [objective synonym]
Nielsenicrinus ewaldi Jagt 1999
Nielsenicrinus fionicus Nielsen 1913
Nielsenicrinus japonicus Oji et al. 1996
Nielsenicrinus obsoletus Nielsen 1913
Nielsenicrinus rosenkrantzi Rasmussen 1961
G. Teliocrinus Döderlein 1912
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Invalid names: Comastrocrinus liliaceous Clark 1912 [synonym], Comastrocrinus ornatus Clark 1912 [synonym], Teliocrinus asper Döderlein 1912 [synonym]
Invalid names: Comastrocrinus Clark 1912 [synonym]
Fm. Isocrinidae Gislén 1924
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G. †Archaeoisocrinus Webster and Jell 1999
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Archaeoisocrinus occiduaustralis Webster and Jell 1999
Subfm. †Balanocrininae Roux 1981
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G. †Balanocrinus Agassiz 1847
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Balanocrinus cubensis Sanchez Roig 1926
Balanocrinus dumortieri de Loriol 1887
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Invalid names: Pentacrinus pentagonalis Goldfuss 1871 [synonym]
Balanocrinus gillieroni Loriol 1879
Balanocrinus inornatus d'Orbigny 1850
Balanocrinus moniliferus Munster 1831
Balanocrinus pacomei de Loriol 1887
Balanocrinus pentagonalis Goldfuss 1831
Balanocrinus senonensis Valette 1917
Balanocrinus smithi Hess and Gale 2010
Balanocrinus subsulcatus Munster 1831
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Invalid names: Pentacrinites subteroides Quenstedt 1858 [synonym], Pentacrinus liasinus d'Orbigny 1850 [synonym]
Balanocrinus subteres Munster 1831
Balanocrinus valettei Collignon 1931
Invalid names: Margocrinus [synonym], Terocrinus [synonym]
G. †Laevigatocrinus Klikushin 1979
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Laevigatocrinus laevigatus Münster 1841
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Invalid names: Pentacrinus venustus Klipstein 1843 [synonym]
G. †Percevalicrinus Klikushin 1977
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Percevalicrinus beaugrandi de Loriol 1875
Invalid names: Picteticrinus de Loriol 1875 [replaced]
G. †Singularocrinus Klikushin 1982
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Singularocrinus singularis Klikushin 1982
G. †Chariocrinus Hess 1972
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Chariocrinus andreae Desor 1845
Chariocrinus bathonicus de Loriol 1887
Chariocrinus cristagalli Quenstedt 1852
Chariocrinus japonicus Hunter et al. 2011
Chariocrinus mosensis de Loriol 1888
Chariocrinus schlumbergeri de Loriol 1886
Subfm. †Isocrininae Gislen 1924
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G. †Bakonycrinus Stiller 2011
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Bakonycrinus hercuniae Bather 1911
Bakonycrinus pecae Jurkovsek and KolarJurkovsek 1997
Bakonycrinus sceptrum Bather 1911
Bakonycrinus scipio Bather 1911
G. Chladocrinus Agassiz 1836
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Chladocrinus empeldensis Jäger 1985
Chladocrinus krausei Jäger 1985
Chladocrinus oceani d'Orbigny 1850
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Invalid names: Pentacrinus perlatiformis Rothpletz 1886 [synonym]
Chladocrinus scalaris Goldfuss 1831
G. †Hispidocrinus Simms 1988
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Hispidocrinus scalaris Goldfuss 1831
G. Hypalocrinus Clark 1909
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Hypalocrinus naresianus Carpenter 1882
G. †Isocrinus von Meyer 1836
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Subg. †Isocrinus (Chladocrinus) Agassiz 1836
Subg. Isocrinus (Diplocrinus) Doderlein 1912
Subg. †Isocrinus (Isocrinus) von Meyer 1836
Isocrinus amblyscalaris Thurmann 1861
Isocrinus annulatus Roemer 1836
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Invalid names: Pentacrinus alternatus d'Orbigny 1850 [synonym]
Isocrinus arduennensis Valette 1926
Isocrinus arzierensis Loriol 1879
Isocrinus bleytonensis Jäger 2010
Isocrinus brotzeni Rasmussen 1961
Isocrinus californicus Clark and Twitchell 1915
Isocrinus campanularis Nielsen 1913
Isocrinus cenomanensis d'Orbigny 1850
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Invalid names: Isocrinus neuvillensis Valette 1917 [synonym]
Isocrinus dentatogranulatus Wollemann 1907
Isocrinus diegonensis Collignon 1931
Isocrinus divergens Nielsen 1913
Isocrinus doliolum Valette 1917
Isocrinus dumortieri Oppel 1865
Isocrinus echinatus Rasmussen 1961
Isocrinus florifer Eichwald 1868
Isocrinus gevreyi Loriol 1904
Isocrinus gocevi Sieverts-Doreck 1951
Isocrinus granosus Valette 1917
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Invalid names: Balanocrinus epensensis Valette 1917 [synonym], Isocrinus forbesi Biese 1930 [synonym], Isocrinus hureae Valette 1917 [synonym]
Isocrinus knighti Springer 1909
Isocrinus lanceolatus Roemer 1840
Isocrinus legeri Repelin 1899
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Invalid names: Isocrinus askerensis Valette 1926 [synonym]
Isocrinus lissajouxi Loriol 1836
Isocrinus longus Nielsen 1913
Isocrinus mallevalensis Loriol 1904
Isocrinus minutus Valette 1917
Isocrinus nehalemensis Moore and Vokes 1953
Isocrinus neocomiensis Desor 1845
Isocrinus nicoleti Desor 1845
Isocrinus nodulosus Roemer 1840
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Invalid names: Isocrinus affinis Valette 1917 [synonym], Isocrinus sanctipaterni Valette 1917 [synonym], Pentacrinus lamberti Valette 1917 [synonym]
Isocrinus perlatus Quenstedt 1852
Isocrinus peyroulensis Loriol 1904
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Invalid names: Isocrinus demolyi Valette 1928 [synonym]
Isocrinus propinquus Münster 1834
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Invalid names: Pentacrinus braunii Münster 1841 [synonym]
Isocrinus psilonoti Quenstedt 1858
Isocrinus sublaevigatus d'Orbigny 1850
Isocrinus thiessingi Loriol 1879
Isocrinus zeltbergensis Wollemann 1902
Invalid names: Isocrinites Meyer in Agassiz 1836 [synonym]
G. †Raymondicrinus Klikushin 1982
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Raymondicrinus oregonensis Moore and Vokes 1953
G. †Tyrolecrinus Klikushin 1982
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Tyrolecrinus separatus Mu and Wu 1974
Tyrolecrinus wugangi Stiller 2011
G. Neocrinus Wyville Thomson 1864
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Neocrinus australis Moore 1870
Neocrinus decorus Thompson 1864
Neocrinus tenellus Eichwald 1868
Invalid names: Isocrinus parvus Howchin 1921 [nomen dubium], Pentacrinus exilis Eichwald 1868 [nomen dubium], Pentacrinus fairbanksi Anderson 1958 [nomen dubium], Pentacrinus stellatus Hutton 1873 [nomen dubium], Pentacrinus tehamaensis Clark and Twitchell 1915 [nomen dubium], Tauriniocrinus Rovereto 1939 [nomen dubium]
Fm. Isselicrinidae Klikushkin 1977
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G. †Denticrinus Klikushin 1985
Subfm. Diplocrininae Roux 1981
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G. Cenocrinus Thomson 1864
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Invalid names: Encrinus caput Lamarck 1816 [synonym]
Invalid names: Encrinus caput medusae Lamarck 1816 [synonym]
G. Endoxocrinus Clark 1908
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Subg. Endoxocrinus (Diplocrinus) Doderlein 1912
Invalid names: Annacrinus Clark 1923 [synonym]
G. Diplocrinus Doederlein 1912
Subfm. †Isselicrininae Klikushin 1977
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G. †Austinocrinus Loriol 1889
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Austinocrinus bicoronatus Hagenow 1840
Austinocrinus cubensis Valette 1926
Austinocrinus erckerti Dames 1885
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Invalid names: Austinocrinus komaroffi Loriol 1889 [synonym], Austinocrinus radiatus Anthula 1899 [synonym]
Austinocrinus mexicanus Springer 1922
Austinocrinus rothpletzi Stolley 1892
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Invalid names: Austinocrinus meyni Stolley 1892 [synonym], Austinocrinus zitteli Stolley 1892 [synonym], Isocrinus holsaticus Jaekel 1904 [synonym]
Austinocrinus solignaci Valette 1926
Invalid names: Austinocrinus (Penroseocrinus) Sieverts-Doreck 1953 [invalid subgroup]
G. †Doreckicrinus Rasmussen 1961
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Doreckicrinus convexus Nielsen 1913
Doreckicrinus italicus Rasmussen 1961
Doreckicrinus limburgicus Rasmussen 1961
Doreckicrinus miliaris Nielsen 1913
G. †Isselicrinus Roverto 1914
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Isselicrinus africanus Peron 1889
Isselicrinus bryani Gabb 1876
Isselicrinus buchii Roemer 1840
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Invalid names: Pentacrinites bronnii Hagenow 1840 [synonym]
Isselicrinus daniensis Valette 1932
Isselicrinus dixoni Ooster 1870
Isselicrinus groenlandicus Rasmussen 1961
Isselicrinus insculptus Rovereto 1924
Isselicrinus paucicirrhus Nielsen 1913
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Invalid names: Pentacrinus crassus Nielsen 1913 [synonym], Pentacrinus kagstrupianus Nielsen 1913 [synonym], Pentacrinus rejstrupianus Nielsen 1913 [synonym]
Isselicrinus peroni Loriol 1893
Isselicrinus stelliferus Hagenow 1840
Isselicrinus tibiensis Dupuy de Lôme and Revilla 1956
Invalid names: Buchicrinus [synonym], Lipocrinus Rasmussen 1953 [synonym]
G. †Praeisselicrinus Klikushin 1977
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Praeisselicrinus limburgicus Klikushin 1982
Subfm. Metacrininae Klikushin 1977
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G. †Eometacrinus Baumiller and Gazdzicki 1996
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Eometacrinus australis Baumiller and Gazdzicki 1996
G. Metacrinus Carpenter 1882
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Metacrinus fossilis Rasmussen 1979
Metacrinus wyvillei Carpenter 1884
Metacrinus wyvillii Carpenter 1884
G. Saracrinus Clark 1923
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Saracrinus nobilis Carpenter 1884
Fm. Proisocrinidae Rasmussen 1978
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G. Proisocrinus Clark 1910
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Subor. †Pentacrinitina Gray 1842
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Fm. †Eocomatulidae Simms 1988
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G. †Eocomatula Simms 1986
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Eocomatula decagonalis Simms 1994
Fm. †Pentacrinitidae Gray 1842
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G. †Pentacrinites Blumenbach 1804
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Pentacrinites asteriscus Meek and Hayden 1858
Pentacrinites ausichi Hess 2012
Pentacrinites fossilis Blumenbach 1804
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Invalid names: Pentacrinites briareus Miller 1821 [synonym], Pentacrinites britannicus von Schlotheim 1813 [objective synonym]
Invalid names: Extracrinus Austin and Austin 1847 [synonym], Heterocrinus Fraas 1858 [synonym], Pentacrinus Miller 1821 [nomen vanum]
G. †Seirocrinus Gislen 1924
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Seirocrinus subangularis Miller 1821
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Invalid names: Extracrinus lepidotus Austin and Austin 1847 [synonym], Pentacrinites briaroides Quenstedt 1852 [synonym], Pentacrinites colligatus Quenstedt 1852 [synonym], Pentacrinites fasciculosus von Schlotheim 1813 [synonym], Pentacrinus hiemeri Koenig 1825 [synonym]
Invalid names: Pentacrinidae Gray 1842 [replaced]
Invalid names: Polycerus Fischer von Waldheim 1811 [nomen dubium]
Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: high Mg calcitec
Ontogeny: accretion, addition of partsp
Environment: marinep
Locomotion: stationaryo
Attached: yessubc
Life habit: epifaunalo
Diet: suspension feedero
Vision: blindc
Dispersal: waterp
Dispersal 2: planktonicp
Comments: some genera of the order, e.g. Isocrinus and Seirocrinus are pseudoplanktonic (passively mobile)o
Created: 2004-02-28 17:08:50
Modified: 2004-02-28 19:08:50
Source: o = order, subc = subclass, c = class, p = phylum
References: Aberhan et al. 2004, Aberhan 1992, Hendy et al. 2009, Kiessling 2004

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Kungurian to the top of the Calabrian or 279.30000 to 0.77400 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 272.3 Ma

Collections (523 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Kungurian279.3 - 272.3Australia (Western Australia) Archaeoisocrinus occiduaustralis (120603)
Triassic251.902 - 201.4USA (Alaska) Pentacrinus sp. (112235)
Spathian251.3 - 247.2USA (Utah) Isocrinus sp. (44449)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0New Zealand Laevigatocrinus balmacaanensis (60863 60990) Pentacrinites carolinensis, Laevigatocrinus balmacaanensis (60991)
Anisian247.2 - 242.0Poland Pentacrinus dubius (63538)
Pelsonian247.2 - 242.0Italy (Vicentin) Pentacrinus dubius (87260)
Pelsonian - Illyrian247.2 - 242.0China (Guizhou) Balanocrinus sp. (31611 31613 31616 31617 31618 31619 31627 31628 31631 31632) Balanocrinus sp., Tyrolecrinus tyrolensis (31620 31621 31622 31623 31624 31625 31626 31629)
Pelsonian - Illyrian247.2 - 242.0Hungary Isocrinus sp. (81050 81051)
Middle Triassic247.2 - 237.0USA (California) Pentacrinus asteriscus (33195)
Middle Triassic247.2 - 237.0Italy (Trento) Pentacrinus sp. (202272)
Middle Triassic247.2 - 237.0USA (Nevada) Isocrinus sp. (203310)
Ladinian242.0 - 237.0Iran Balanocrinus sp., Isocrinus rollieri (97874)
Ladinian242.0 - 237.0Svalbard and Jan Mayen Pentacrinus sp. (212207)
Longobardian242.0 - 235.0Italy (Trentino) Pentacrinus propinquus (44953)
Longobardian242.0 - 235.0Spain (Alicante) Pentacrinus sp. (202223 202224 202240)
Longobardian242.0 - 235.0Canada (British Columbia) Isocrinus sp. (44367 44368 44369 44370)
Longobardian - Julian242.0 - 232.0Russian Federation Pentacrinus sp. (214792)
Ladinian - Carnian242.0 - 228.0Japan (Saitama) Pentacrinus sp. (201826)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0China (Xizang) Isocrinus candelabrum (61262)
Carnian237.0 - 228.0USA (nevada) Isocrinus sp. (32793)