|Basic info||Taxonomic history||Classification||Relationships|
|Morphology||Ecology and taphonomy||External Literature Search||Age range and collections|
Gastropoda - Heterostropha - Donaldinidae
It was recombined as Royalella quadrolirata by Mazaev (2015).
If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.
|J. R. Anderson et al. 1990||Very high-spired shell, up to 13 whorls, with low spiral angle and low whorl expansion; four revolving lirae on each whorl, two bold lirae in middle of whorl, one faint lira on both upper and lower whorl surfaces.
Small, narrow, low spiral angle, high-spired shell; subrounded whorl profile; anomphalous, sutures shallowly impressed; protoconch of one whorl, smooth, heterostrophic; apical end of protoconch slightly upturned; aperture subcircular in shape; outer lip slightly thickened; inner lip slightly flared; shell composed of as many as 13 whorls, including protoconch.
Teleoconch whorls have thick revolving lirae with deep interareas; first two whorls of teleoconch have faint ornamentation of two revolving lirae; later whorls have two pronounced lirae in middle of each whorl, flanked by two smaller lirae near sutures; growth lines faint.
Whorl cross section circular to subcircular; three shell microstructural layers present; shell thickness ranges from 0.01 to 0.06 mm; slightly arcuate columella. Average measurements and size ranges given in Table 1.