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Lentiarenium christolii

Mammalia - Dugongidae

Taxonomy
Halitherium christolii was named by Fitzinger (1842) [Mus. Naturgesch. Vienna ]. It is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is Linz, which is in a Chattian open shallow subtidal sandstone in the Linzer Sanden Formation of Austria.

It was recombined as Manatus christolii by de Blainville (1844); it was recombined as Metaxytherium christolii by Laurillard (1846); it was corrected as Halitherium christoli by Zittel (1925) and Voss (2007); it was considered an invalid subgroup of Dugongidae by Voss (2014); it was misspelled as Halitherium christoli by Abel (1904), Spillman (1959), Domning (1994) and Domning (1996); it was recombined as Lentiarenium christolii by Voss et al. (2016).

Synonyms
  • Metaxytherium pergense was named by Toula (1899). It is not a trace fossil. Its type locality is Perg, which is in a Miocene marine sandstone in Austria.

    It was recombined as Halitherium pergense by Spillman (1959); it was synonymized subjectively with Halitherium christolii by Domning (1996).
  • Halitherium abeli was named by Spillman (1959). Its type specimen is 257/1939, a mandible, and it is a 3D body fossil. Its type locality is Linz, which is in a Chattian open shallow subtidal sandstone in the Linzer Sanden Formation of Austria.

    It was synonymized subjectively with Halitherium christolii by Domning (1996).
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1842Halitherium christolii Fitzinger p. 71
1844Manatus christolii de Blainville
1846Metaxytherium christolii Laurillard p. 172
1899Metaxytherium pergense Toula
1904Halitherium christoli Abel p. 215
1904Metaxitherium pergense Trouessart p. 750
1925Halitherium christoli Zittel p. 265
1959Halitherium pergense Spillman p. 11
1959Halitherium christoli Spillman p. 17
1959Halitherium abeli Spillman p. 36
1994Halitherium christolii Domning p. 189
1996Halitherium christolii Domning p. 384
2007Halitherium christoli Voss p. 45
2016Lentiarenium christolii Voss et al. p. 6

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
RankNameAuthor
Amniota
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
Pansirenia
Sirenia()
familyDugongidae
genusLentiarenium
specieschristolii()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
M. Voss et al. 2016Dugongid based on the following combination of synapomorphies: absence of alisphenoid canal, open foramen ovale, loss of permanent fth premolar, and squamosal reaching temporal crest. Differs from the Dugonginae (Crenatosiren Domning, 1991, Nanosiren Domning & Aguilera, 2008, Dugong Lacépède, 1799, Rytiodus Lartet, 1866, Corystosiren Domning, 1990, Callistosiren Vélez-Juarbe & Domning, 2015, Bharatisiren Bajpai & Domning, 1997, Domningia Thewissen & Bajpai, 2009, Kutchisiren Bajpai, Domning, Das, Vélez-Juarbe & Mishra, 2010, Dioplotherium Cope, 1883 and Xenosiren Domning, 1989), the Hydrodamalinae Simpson, 1932 (Dusisiren Domning, 1978 and Hydrodamalis Retzius, 1794), and other dugongid genera (Eotheroides Palmer, 1899, Prototherium De Zigno, 1887, Eosiren Andrews, 1902, Caribosiren Reinhart, 1959, Priscosiren Vélez-Juarbe & Domning, 2014b, Metaxytherium De Christol, 1840, and other species formerly lumped under “Halitherium”) by displaying the following unique combination of plesiomorphies: frontal roof at; supraorbital process of the frontal dorsoventrally attened with well-developed, prominent posterolateral corner; supraoccipital wider dorsally than ventrally; exoccipitals meet in a suture dorsal to the foramen magnum; posttympanic process with a prominent anteroventral process for attachment of m. sternomastoideus; paroccipital process of exoccipital long, reaching as far ventrally as occipital condyles; accessory mental foramina present; horizontal ramus of mandible slender dorsoventrally; permanent premolars (P2/p2 – P4/p4) present. Synapomorphies: nasals reduced and not meeting in midline (shared with Eosiren imenti Domning et al., 1994, Caribosiren, Priscosiren, and all later dugongid taxa), nasal incisure at posterior end of the mesorostral fossa deep, extending posterior to the supraorbital processes of the frontals (shared with some Metaxytherium spp., dugongines, and Hydrodamalis); strongly concave ventral border of the horizontal mandibular ramus (shared with Priscosiren, Metaxytherium spp., and dugongines), masticating surface of mandible broad (shared with Metaxytherium ssp., dugongines, and hydrodamalines). In contrast to the similar species Priscosiren atlantica it has a supraorbital process with the posterolateral corner projecting posteriorly; prominent temporal crests on frontal and parietal; supraoccipital distinct in height, only slightly wider than high.