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If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.
|J. B. Knight 1941||Small, irregularly sinistral, trochiform, anomphalous gastropods cemented to their substratum at the flattened apex, resembling externally a small cup coral; whorls seldom recognizable externally, the external shell layers resembling the epitheca of a coral with strongly oblique, spirally arranged lines of growth, the latter being so very oblique that it is often not apparent at first sight that they are actually spiral; base uppermost in life, cuplike, slightly raised in the middle, and surrounded by the upstanding edges of the sides of the shell, just within which are numerous rounded pustules; the aperture rather narrow and low; the columellar lip short, somewhat thickened, strongly arcuate, seemingly ending in a point between which and the inner side of the edges of the shell is the thin edge of the straight, basal lip; apex of the shell cemented to the substratum, the flattened, cemented area consisting of about three whorls which grew in contact with the substratum much as in the worm Spirorbis; ornamentation aside from rather coarse lines of growth in the sides very obscure or wanting; shell rather thick, its internal structure unknown, though the base is covered by a layer that seems to show clearly at higher magnifications translucent lamellae characteristic of the inner, secondary or lamellar layers of molluscan shells. A large example measures about 8 mm. across the base and 5 mm. in height.|