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Mystacodon

Mammalia - Ungulata - Mystacodontidae

Synonymy list
YearName and author
2017Mystacodon Lambert et al. p. 1 figs. Fig. 1-2
2018Mystacodon Fordyce and Marx p. 2 figs. Fig. 4
2019Mystacodon de Muizon et al. p. 405

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Synapsida()
RankNameAuthor
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
orderUngulata(Linnaeus 1766)
orderArtiodactyla()
Cetacea()
Pelagiceti
Neoceti
suborderMysticeti
familyMystacodontidae
genusMystacodon

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
O. Lambert et al. 2017MUSM 1917 is identified as a Neoceti based on the following derived characters, absent in basilosaurid archaeocetes: partly open mesorostral groove; anteroposteriorly elongated rostral portion of maxilla; loss of sagittal crest; supraoccipital shield an- terodorsally inclined; apex of zygomatic process of squamosal nearly contacting postorbital process of frontal; and distal epiphysis of the humerus divided in two angled radial and ulnar facets. It can be referred to the Mysticeti due to the following combination of derived characters: dorsoventrally thin lateral edge of maxilla on rostrum; presence of an antorbital process of the maxilla; presence of a maxillary infraorbital plate; and triangular supraoccipital shield. It is further diagnosed by two possibly au- tapomorphic features: nasal anteroposteriorly longer than frontal plus parietal and strong tuberosity on anterior edge of radius; two additional derived characters: posteriormost upper tooth anterior to level of antorbital process of maxilla and broad-based rostrum (ratio between width of skull at rostrum base and width at postorbital process > 0.8); and a series of plesiomophic features: supraoccipital shield not extending anterior to anterior level of squamosal fossa, only two dorsal infraorbital foramina, a basilosaurid dental formula 3.1.4.2/3.1.4.3, no wide diastemata between posterior cheek teeth, sutured mandibular symphysis, and well-defined acetabulum on innominate. Finally, MUSM 1917 lacks cranial synapomorphies of Odontoceti: facial con- cavity, presence of premaxillary foramen and premaxillary sac fossa, and posterior expansion of maxilla over the supraorbital region (see [1, 5, 11–13]) (Figures 1, 2, 3, and S2).