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Miniochoerus gracilis

Mammalia - Ungulata - Merycoidodontidae

Taxonomy
Oreodon gracile was named by Leidy (1851). Its type specimen is ANSP 10692 and 10964, a maxilla (Partial right maxilla with P4-M3, and partial left maxilla with M1-M3), and it is a 3D body fossil.

It was corrected as Oreodon gracilis by Leidy (1853), Leidy (1857) and Cope (1884); it was recombined as Merycoidodon gracilis by Hay (1902), Gilmore (1906), Matthew (1932), Thorpe (1937), Scott (1940) and Galbreath (1953); it was recombined as Miniochoerus (Paraminiochoerus) gracilis by Schultz and Falkenbach (1956); it was recombined as Oreonetes gracilis by Lander (1998); it was recombined as Miniochoerus gracilis by Stevens and Stevens (1996) and Stevens and Stevens (2007).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1851Oreodon gracile Leidy p. 239
1853Oreodon gracilis Leidy p. 53
1857Oreodon gracilis Leidy p. 89
1884Oreodon gracilis Cope p. 512
1888Oreodon minor Cope
1902Merycoidodon gracilis Hay p. 666
1906Merycoidodon gracilis Gilmore
1932Merycoidodon gracilis Matthew
1937Merycoidodon gracilis Thorpe p. 56 figs. Fig. 7; PI. I, figs. 4-5; PI. Ill, figs. 3-5; PI. XLI
1940Merycoidodon gracilis Scott p. 670
1953Merycoidodon gracilis Galbreath
1956Miniochoerus (Paraminiochoerus) gracilis Schultz and Falkenbach p. 413 figs. 3 - 4, 9 - 11
1996Miniochoerus gracilis Stevens and Stevens p. 551 figs. Figures 4, 5, 6; Tables 1-9; Appendix C
1998Oreonetes gracilis Lander
2007Miniochoerus gracilis Stevens and Stevens p. 158

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
RankNameAuthor
Synapsida()
Therapsida()
infraorderCynodontia()
Epicynodontia
infraorderEucynodontia
Probainognathia
Mammaliamorpha
Mammaliaformes
classMammalia
subclassTribosphenida()
infraclassEutheria()
orderUngulata(Linnaeus 1766)
orderArtiodactyla()
familyMerycoidodontidae
subfamilyMiniochoerinae
genusMiniochoerus
speciesgracilis()

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
C. B. Schultz and C. H. Falkenbach 1956SKULL: Smallest in Miniochoerinae, larger examples approach the smaller ones of M. (P.) affinis; sagittal crest higher on average than in examples of M. (P.) affinis; brain case well inflated, more so than in average examples of latter species; frontals less convex transversely than those of M. (P.) affinis; nasals moderately light, slight anterior retraction; an- terior nasal-maxilla contact above and posterior to C/; supraorbital foramina with tendency to be farther apart in examples of M. (P.) affinis; malar averaging less depth below orbit than in examples of M. (P.) affinis; infraorbital foramen above ps ; lacrimal fossa smaller and with less depth than in examples of M. (P.) affinis; occipital condyles lighter than those of latter species.
MANDIBLE:Examples lighter and smaller than those of M. battlecreekensis; condyle lighter than in examples of M. (P.) affinis, external border higher and more anterior than internal border.
DENTITION: Series lightest known of Miniochoerinae, length averaging less than in examples of M. (P.) affinis.
LIMBS: Shortest and lightest in Miniochoerinae.
M. S. Stevens and J. B. Stevens 1996Cranial characterization is the same as for a derived member of the genus as the most fetalized species, the Subnasal L. is 62% of the Nasal L., the pl_P4 averages 47% of the P l _M3 (Table 3), the APM3rrM3 ratio averages 1.01 (Table 5), the mean APM3/Ht. M3 ratio is 1.91 (Table 4), and TM3/Ht. M3 averages 1.88 (Table 6). M. gracilis differs from Miniochoerus chadronensis by more fetalized cranium, systematically and significantly smaller size [for our data, means for all measurements significantly smaller; observed ranges of Subnasal L., Malar D ., P .O .C., and Sk. L. and Sk. W . overlap by from 3% (Sk. L.) to 53% (Malar D.) of the combined ranges for our data sets], and significantly larger pl_P41pl_M3, Sk. W./Sk. L., Sk. L./P l_M3 (ranges overlap substantially;Tables 3, 7- 9). M. gracilis differs from M. affinis , an approximate contemporary, by systematically and significantly smaller size [overlap of combined observed ranges is from 4% (Pl-M3) to 67% (Subnasal L.) with an average of 24%; no overlai> for Ht. M3s], and significantly larger P 1-P4!P1-M3 ratio (Tables 3 and 9). M. gracilis differs from M. starkensis by more fetalized cranium, and systematically significantly smaller size [observed ranges of only eight characteris- tic overlap: Pl-P4s, TM3 (5% of the combined ranges), Subnasal L., Malar D., P.O.C. (35%), Sk. L., Sk. W., with an average overlap of 17%], significantly less reduced premolars, significantly broader M3s and noticeably higher M3s (proportions that are stereotyped in comparisons with other Miniochoerinae).