|Basic info||Taxonomic history||Classification||Relationships|
|Morphology||Ecology and taphonomy||External Literature Search||Age range and collections|
Mammalia - Ungulata - Merycoidodontidae
|Year||Name and author|
|1956||Miniochoerus Schultz and Falkenbach p. 391 figs. 1 - 2, 9 - 11|
|1956||Miniochoerus (Paraminiochoerus) Schultz and Falkenbach p. 402 figs. 3 - 4, 9 - 11|
|1956||Platyochoerus Schultz and Falkenbach p. 425 figs. 5 - 6, 9 - 11|
|1956||Stenopsochoerus Schultz and Falkenbach p. 435 figs. 6 - 7, 9 - 11|
|1956||Stenopsochoerus (Pseudostenopsochoerus) Schultz and Falkenbach p. 443 figs. 8 - 11|
|1956||Parastenopsochoerus Schultz and Falkenbach p. 450 figs. 6 - 7|
|1996||Miniochoerus Stevens and Stevens p. 538|
|2007||Miniochoerus Stevens and Stevens p. 158|
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If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.
|C. B. Schultz and C. H. Falkenbach 1956||SKULL: Small to medium size; basal lengths ranging from 137 to 168 mm., widths from 74 to 108 mm. ; mesocephalic; facial region deep ; exoccipital foramen above base of paroccipital process moderately prominent to prominent; sagittal crest thin, not noticeably high; brain case inflated, decidedly narrower than in examples of Platyochoerus; postorbital constriction averaging wider than in examples of Sten- opsochoerus; frontals slightly convex laterally; nasals moderately broad, broader on average than those of Miniochoerus (Paraminiochoerus) ; anterior nasal-maxilla contact above C/; orbit small; zygomatic arch lacking marked inward curve or notch posterior to orbit, as in ex- amples of Stenopsochoerus, and with more or less sharp posterior rise to inferior border from a point below orbit; malar shallow to moderately deep below orbit; infraorbital foramen in area above P8; lacrimal fossa small, shallow to moderately deep; depressed area on face above P1- ps (infraorbital foramen at posterior border of depression) ; muzzle rather broad ; anterior border of maxilla meeting nasal with very steep posterior slope ( approaching perpendicular) ; occipital condyles of medium size; auditory bulla small (similar to those of Prodesmatochoerus meekae,1 definitely unlike inflated bullae in Merychyinae or Oreonetinae, p. 453) ; postglenoid process not excessively high, ex...
MANDIBLE: Moderately robust; postsymphysis below P 3-P 4; ramus moderately deep, increasing in depth posteriorly; inferior border of ramus fairly straight with gradual to moderately abrupt downward curve posterior to Ms; posterior border of ascending ramus robust, inferior border with slight to noticeable inward curve.
DENTITION: C/ and P1 moderately large to large; premolars small, not overly crowded; P1⁄2-M1/1 with tendency to be slightly larger than in examples of M. (Paraminiochoerus), definitely smaller than those of Platyochoerus and Stenopsochoerus; external styles of superior molars from prominent to very prominent; anterior intermediate crest on P' prominent, usually situated closer to primary cusp than in examples of M. (Paraminiochoerus).
LIMBS: Small size; moderately light to somewhat robust; length range within that found in Merychyinae.
|C. B. Schultz and C. H. Falkenbach 1956 (Parastenopsochoerus)||SKULL: Small size; basal length 137 mm., width 81 mm.,within size variation of examples of S. (Pseudostenopsochoerus) douglasensis; mesocephalic; supraoccipital wings widely spread, incorporated into a fan-shaped occipital region, somewhat less pronounced than in other genera of Miniochoerinae; sagittal crest short, very low, with a short depressed area above postglenoid process, posterior portion forming a short noticeable crest (differing considerably from the long and moderately prominent sagittal crest of other genera of Miniochoerinae); brain case inflated, more so than in Stenopsochoerus; postorbital constriction considerably wider than in Stenopsochoerus; frontals moderately broad and somewhat convex laterally; nasals moderately broad, with more anterior retraction than in other genera of subfamily; anterior nasal-maxilla contact above P1 ; supraorbital foramen lacking anterior groove usually present in other genera of subfamily; orbit moderately small and round; zygomatic arch moderately light, with slight inward curve or notch posterior to orbit; malar shallow below orbit; infraorbital foramen above posterior portion of pa to anterior portion of p.a.; lacrimal fossa moderately large and very deep; depressed area above pi_p.a.shallow (infraorbital foramen at posterior of depression) ; muzzle moderately broad in contrast to narrow muzzle in Stenopsochoerus; anterior border of maxilla with less abrupt rise to nasal contact than in other genera of subfamily; occipital condyles large, larger and more widespread than in other species of the Miniochoerinae from "Zone A" of the Brule ; paroccipital process wide at base ; auditory bulla small, slightly larger than in examples of Stenopsochoerus from "Zone A" of Brule; postglenoid process moderately high, similar to Miniochoerus; posterior palate extending to middle portion of M8•
DENTITION: Heavy; C/ small; P1-M1 moderately large, comparable with those of Stenopsochoerus, S. (Pseudostenopsochoerus), and Platyochoerus, larger than in average examples of Miniochoerus and M. (Paraminiochoerus); external styles of superior molars moderately prominent; pi_p.a. each with anterior intermediate crest.
|C. B. Schultz and C. H. Falkenbach 1956 (Platyochoerus)||SKULL: Small to medium size; basal lengths ranging from 129 to 158 mm., widths from 80 to 106 mm. ; mesocephalic; low and rather broad, wider than average examples of Stenopsochoerus; facial region not so deep as in Miniochoerus; exoccipital with small foramen within oblong depression above base of paroccipital process ; sagittal crest moderately prominent; pos,torbital constriction wider than in examples of Stenopsochoerus, similar to those of Miniochoe:us and M. (Paraminiochoerus); brain case inflated, rather low and expanded laterally; frontals broad and flat with tendency for shallow posterior depression; nasals broad with slight anterior retraction; anterior nasal-maxilla contact above posterior portion of C/; supraorbital foramen with anterior groove extending forward and downward on side of face · orbit subround, posterior pillar somewhat more robust than usual in subfamily; zygomatic arch with noticeable posterior rise of inferior border from below orbit; posterior border of squamosal low ; malar shallow to moderately deep below orbit ; infraorbital foramen in area above P 8 -P"'; lacrimal fossa small, moderately deep; shallow depressed area on face above P1-P 8 (in- f raor?ital foramen at posterior of depression); 3:1-tenor border of maxilla with very abrupt nse to nasal contact, similar to that of Miniochoerus; occipital condyles of medium size; paroccipital process moderately light; bulla small, typical of subfamily; postglenoid process moderately light, compressed anteroposteriorly, not so high as in Miniochoerus, external border with less slope than in latter genus; posterior palate without noticeable projection posterior to M3.
MANDIBLE: Moderately light to moderately robust; postsymphysis below Ps; ramus shallow to deep, increasing in depth posteriorly; inferior border of ramus straight, with a moderately sharp downward curve posterior to Ma; postenor border of ascending ramus moderately robust, inferior border with inward curve.
DENTITION: Moderately heavy; C/ and P 1 moderately large; premolars and M1 larger than in examples of Miniochoerus and M.(Paraminiochoerus), approximately equal to those of Stenopsochoerus; premolars slightly crowded to crowded ; external styles of superior molars moderately prominent.
LIMBS: Small size, moderately light, but more robust than in Stenopsochoerus.
|C. B. Schultz and C. H. Falkenbach 1956 (Stenopsochoerus)||SKULL: Small to medium size; basal lengths ranging from 129 to 161.5 mm., widths from 64 to 88 mm. ; dolichocephalic to mesocephalic; exoccipital with moderately prominent foramen above base of paroccipital process; sagittal crest moderately prominent but not noticeably high; brain case inflated and elongated, narrow in comparison with that of Platyochoerus
(somewhat similar to that of Desmatochoerinae) ; postorbital constriction noticeably narrower than in other genera of Miniochoerinae; frontals convex laterally; nasals narrow to moderately broad, with slight anterior retraction; anterior nasal-maxilla contact above C/; orbit small and roundish ; zygomatic arch with prominent posterior rise of inferior border from below orbit, and with marked inward curve or notch posterior to orbit; malar moderately shallow to moderately deep below orbit; infraorbital
foramen above ps ; lacrimal f ossa small, noticeably deep; slightly depressed area above P 1 -P' (infraorbital foramen at posterior border of depression) ; muzzle narrow ; anterior border of maxilla almost perpendicular to nasal contact (similar to that of Miniochoerus) ; occipital condyles of medium size; auditory bulla small, typical of subfamily; postglenoid process moderately light, compressed anteroposteriorly, similar to that of Platyochoerus (not so high as in Miniochoerus, external border with less slope than in latter genus) ; posterior palate extending posteriorly for slight distance beyond Ms.
MANDIBLE: Moderately light to moderately robust; postsymphysis below area between Ps and P•; ramus moderately shallow to moder- ately deep; ramus increasing in depth posteriorly; inferior border of ramus almost straight; ascending ramus with slight inward curve to inferior border, posterior border moderately robust; condyle with external border more anterior than internal border.
DENTITION: Heavy; C/ and P 1 moderately large; premolars moderately large and somewhat crowded; M~ large [P~-Ml decidedly larger than examples of Miniochoerus and M. (Paraminiochoerus), approximately equal to those of Platyochoerus] ; external styles of superior molars very prominent; Ms with slightly larger posterior portion than in other examples of Miniochoerinae.
LIMBS: Small size, and moderately light.
|M. S. Stevens and J. B. Stevens 1996||Same as for the subfamily. [Medium-small to small , mesocephalic (Table 7) oreodonts that have skulls with steep premaxillae, convex nasal profiles, Subnasal L. averages 50-63% of the Nasal L., relatively small orbits located rather low on the sides of the face, persistently small auditory bullae with deep hyoidal grooves, unspecialized zygoma, generally with only a moder- ately prominent, little protracted, and somewhat broadened nuchal crest, and teeth that have thinned and progressively thinner enamel on the middle surfaces of the crests and selenes, a distinctive feature first noted by Leidy (1852, p. 551). Mean pl_P4 values range from 47% to 44% of P1-M 3 (Table 3), mean APM3rrM3 ratios range from 0.98 to 1.05 (Table 5), the M3 is brachydont and mean APM3/Ht. M3 ratios range from 1.85 to 2.07 (Table 4), and the TM3/Ht. M3 ratios increase slightly but regularly (except ?M.
forsythae, 1.89) with time from 1.82 to 1.95 (youngest) as the M3 becomes lower crowned relative to the width (Table 6). Primitive Miniochoerinae have less reduced enamel, longer and narrower occiputs, and deeper preorbital fossae than younger species. Of pertinent subfamilies, Miniochoerinae differ from Oreonetinae Schultz and Falkenbach ( 1956) and Merycoidodontinae Hay (1902) by notably thinned enamel on the premolar- molar crests and selenes; differ from Oreonetinae and early Leptaucheniinae Schultz and Falkenbach (1940, 1968) (Limnenetes) by much larger size; differ from Limnenetes by lower crowned teeth; and differ from post-early Orellan Merycoidodontinae and Leptau- cheniinae by retaining small auditory bullae.]