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Crinoidea -

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1821Articulata Miller
1993Articulata Donovan et al. p. 125
1994Articulata Stilwell et al. p. 138
1998Articulata Ausich p. 17
1999Articulata Webster and Jell p. 317
2017Articulata Wright et al.

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subphylumCrinozoaMatsumoto 1929
classCrinoideaMiller 1821
subclassPentacrinoideaJaekel 1918
infraclassInadunata(Wachsmuth and Springer 1897)
Cladida(Moore and Laudon 1943)
infraorderArticulata(Miller 1821)
infraorderArticulata(Miller 1821)

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

No diagnoses are available
No measurements are available
Composition: high Mg calcitec
Ontogeny: accretion, addition of partsp
Environment: marinep
Locomotion: stationarysubc
Attached: yessubc
Life habit: intermediate-level epifaunalsubc
Diet: suspension feedersubc
Vision: blindc
Dispersal: waterp
Dispersal 2: planktonicp
Created: 2009-10-09 11:50:31
Modified: 2009-10-09 13:50:31
Source: subc = subclass, c = class, p = phylum
References: Kiessling 2004, Aberhan 1992, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Keila to the top of the Late/Upper Pleistocene or 460.90000 to 0.01170 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 455.8 Ma

Collections (789 total)

Oldest occurrences

Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Idavere460.9 - 455.8Norway (Toten) Cyclocrinus porosus, Cyclocrinus spaskii (191093)
Idavere460.9 - 455.8Norway Cyclocrinus porosus (191092)
Keila460.9 - 455.8Estonia (Harju) Cyclocrinus sp. (195554)
Llandovery443.4 - 433.4Norway Cyclocrinus sp. (503)
Aeronian440.8 - 438.5Norway (Oslo) Cyclocrinus sp. (506 507)
Adavere439.0 - 428.2Estonia Encrinus rumbaensis (195607)
Jaani428.2 - 426.2Estonia (Saare) Encrinus punctatus (195595 195598)
Jaani - Jaagarahu428.2 - 422.9Estonia (Saare) Encrinus punctatus (195594)
Lochkovian419.2 - 410.8USA (New York) Aspidocrinus sp. (26697 26851)
Pragian410.8 - 407.6Czech Republic Entrochus bulbosus, Entrochus nodulosus, Entrochus turgidus, Entrochus robustissimus (14134)
Missourian305.9 - 303.4USA (Pennsylvania) Ceriocrinus sp. (184105)
Kungurian279.3 - 272.3Australia (Western Australia) Archaeoisocrinus occiduaustralis (120603)
Wordian268.8 - 265.1Oman Articulata indet. (120606)
Griesbachian252.17 - 251.3China (Guizhou) Holocrinus sp. (200984)
Griesbachian252.17 - 251.3China (Zhejiang) Holocrinus sp. (105221)
Griesbachian252.17 - 251.3Oman Baudicrinus krystyni (60532)
Early/Lower Triassic252.17 - 247.2USA (Idaho) Pentacrinus smithi (33317)
Induan - Olenekian252.17 - 247.2Norway (Svalbard) Holocrinus sp., Roveacrinida indet., Osteocrinus sp., Somphocrinus sp., Encrinida indet., Saccocoma quenstedti (181724)
Smithian251.3 - 247.2USA (Idaho) Isocrinus smithi (136684)
Smithian251.3 - 247.2Russian Federation Holocrinus sp. (90221)