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Halisaurus

Reptilia - Squamata - Mosasauridae

Taxonomy
Halisaurus was named by Marsh (1869) [Sepkoski's age data: K Camp-l K Maes-l Sepkoski's reference number: 1069; YPM 444 including two vertebrae and two cranial bones].

It was replaced with Baptosaurus by Marsh (1870) and Zittel (1890).

It was assigned to Mosasaurinae by Baird and Case (1966), Russell (1970) and Thurmond and Jones (1981); to Squamata by Sepkoski (2002); to Mosasauridae by Carroll (1988), Caldwell and Bell (1995), Holmes and Sues (2000), Lindgren and Siverson (2005) and Polcyn et al. (2012); and to Halisaurinae by Bardet et al. (2005) and Mateus et al. (2012).

Synonyms
Synonymy list
YearName and author
1869Halisaurus Marsh p. 395
1870Baptosaurus Marsh p. 3
1966Halisaurus Baird and Case p. 1211
1970Halisaurus Russell p. 369
1981Halisaurus Thurmond and Jones p. 155
1988Halisaurus Carroll
1995Halisaurus Caldwell and Bell, Jr. p. 536
2000Halisaurus Holmes and Sues p. 309
2002Halisaurus Sepkoski, Jr.
2005Halisaurus Bardet et al. p. 464
2005Halisaurus Lindgren and Siverson
2012Halisaurus Mateus et al.
2012Halisaurus Polcyn et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
RankNameAuthor
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Eosuchia()
Neodiapsida
SauriaGauthier 1984
Lepidosauromorpha(Benton 1983)
superorderLepidosauria()
orderSquamata
Episquamata
ToxicoferaVidal and Hedges 2005
superfamilyMosasauria(Marsh 1880)
familyMosasauridae
genusHalisaurusMarsh 1869

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
J. Lindgren and M. Siverson 2005A strong longitudinal ridge is present on each pedicel of the neural arch on cervical and at least also on anteriorly situated dorsal vertebrae. These ridges give the neural canal a distinct eight-shaped cross section in its central part. Teeth small, abruptly distally curved, densely spaced, and numerous. Very fine anastomosing ridges are often present on mainly the lingual face of the tooth-crown. Tooth resorption pits are located medially on the tooth bases.
N. Bardet et al. 2005Unambiguous characters: frontal with posteromedial dorsal triangular area; articular with large conical buttress just posterior to glenoid; cervical vertebral articulations subrectangular (height : width = 1 : 2). Ambiguous characters: premaxilla–maxilla suture located between the 4th and 9th maxillary teeth (convergent in Tylosaurus and Mosasaurinae); prefrontal with small supraorbital ridge (convergent in Platecarpus and Plioplatecarpus); frontal with sinusoidal lateral margins (convergent in Plioplatecarpus, Platecarpus, Clidastes); large parietal foramen (convergent in Platecarpus) located close to the frontal–parietal suture (convergent in Platecarpus, Prognathodon and Mosasaurinae); supraoccipital fused to the parietal; prootic with small otosphenoidal crest (convergent in Platecarpus, Prognathodon, Clidastes); posteriorly convex surangular–articular lateral suture (convergent in Aigialosaurus); teeth delicate, abruptly posteriorly recurved and finely striated (convergent with Plioplatecarpus, Platecarpus, Clidastes).
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: terrestrialsubc
Locomotion: actively mobilec
Life habit: aquaticf
Diet: carnivoref
Vision: well-developedf
Reproduction: ovoviviparousf
Created: 2018-01-05 16:32:54
Modified: 2018-01-05 16:32:54
Source: f = family, subc = subclass, c = class, subp = subphylum
References: Kiessling 2004, Gervais 1852, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range: base of the Late/Upper Santonian to the top of the Early/Lower Maastrichtian or 85.80000 to 66.00000 Ma

Collections (27 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Santonian86.3 - 83.6Peru H. sp. (98018)
Santonian - Maastrichtian86.3 - 66.0USA (Alabama) H. sternbergi (81972)
Late/Upper Santonian - Early/Lower Campanian85.8 - 70.6USA (Alabama) H. sternbergi (81934)
Late/Upper Santonian - Early/Lower Campanian85.8 - 70.6USA (Kansas) Clidastes sternbergi (109698)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Sweden (Skane) H. sternbergi (106411)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1Sweden H. sternbergi (102883)
Campanian83.6 - 72.1USA (Georgia) H. sp. (35289)
Early/Lower Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (Delaware) H. platyspondylus (126599)
Early/Lower Campanian83.5 - 70.6Sweden (Skåne) H. sternbergi (74334)
Early/Lower Campanian83.5 - 70.6USA (North Carolina) H. sp. (57918)
Judithian83.5 - 70.6USA (New Jersey) H. sp. (14455)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0Jordan H. sp. (13366)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0Zaire H. sp. (142144)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0USA (Maryland) H. platyspondylus (27563 27564 99439)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0Niger (Tahoua) H. sp. (104945)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0USA (New Jersey) H. platyspondylus (57915 99138)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0Angola (Namibe) H. sp. (106705)
Early/Lower Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (Delaware) H. platyspondylus (126598)
Early/Lower Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (New Jersey) H. platyspondylus (26818)
Early/Lower Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Belgium H. ortliebi (82892)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0USA (California) H. sp. (192042)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian70.6 - 66.0Morocco H. arambourgi (118067 123268)
Late/Upper Maastrichtian - Early/Lower Paleocene70.6 - 61.7USA (New Jersey) H. platyspondylus (26819)