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Omphalosaurus

Reptilia - Omphalosauridae

Taxonomy
Omphalosaurus was named by Merriam (1906) [Sepkoski's age data: Tr Olen-u Tr Anis Sepkoski's reference number: 1066]. It is not extant. Its type is Omphalosaurus nevadanus.

It was assigned to Ichthyosauria by Merriam (1906) and Sepkoski (2002); and to Omphalosauridae by Carroll (1988), Sander and Faber (1998) and Maisch (2010).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1906Omphalosaurus Merriam
1988Omphalosaurus Carroll
1998Omphalosaurus Sander and Faber p. 155
2002Omphalosaurus Sepkoski, Jr.
2010Omphalosaurus Maisch

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Reptiliomorpha
Anthracosauria
Batrachosauria()
RankNameAuthor
Cotylosauria()
Amniota
Sauropsida
classReptilia
subclassEureptilia()
Romeriida
Diapsida()
Ichthyosauromorpha
Ichthyosauriformes
Ichthyopterygia(Owen 1840)
Eoichthyosauria
Ichthyosauria(de Blainville 1835)
familyOmphalosauridaeMerriam 1906
genusOmphalosaurusMerriam 1906

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
ReferenceDiagnosis
P. M. Sander and C. Faber 1998Small to medium-sized duroophagous ichthyosaur. Differs from all other ichthyosaurs in the particular arrangement of the teeth forming an irregular pavement and not being set in distinct rows. No other ichthyosaur has maxillary grinding surfaces oriented at right angles to each other. The tooth crowns differ from the other durophagous ichthyosaurs (Phalrodon, Tholodus) in that they are lower and more irregular in shape. Instead of longitudinal wrinkles as in the other durophagous ichthyosaurs, the enamel surface has a characteristic orange-peel pitting.
The skull and lower jaw bones are much more massive than in any other ichthyosaur. In no other ichthyosaur have expanded hollow ribs been found. The roundish humeri found in association with Omphalosaurus dentitions differ from other roundish ichthyosaur humeri in their prominent deltopectoral crest.