|Basic info||Taxonomic history||Classification||Relationships|
|Morphology||Ecology and taphonomy||External Literature Search||Age range and collections|
Reptilia - Testudines
If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.
|W. G. Joyce et al. 2004||‘Pantestudinoidea’ refers to the panstem that includes crown Testudinoidea. ‘Testudinoidea’ refers to the crown clade arising from the last common ancestor of Testudo graeca Linnaeus, 1758, Emys (orig. Testudo) orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758), Batagur (orig. Emys) baska (Gray, 1831), and all other valid species listed in Appendices 8–10, but none of the other valid species listed in Appendix 1.|