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Gymnophiona (caecilian)

Gymnophiona

Taxonomy
Gymnophiona was named by Rafinesque (1814) [spelt by Rafinesque as "Gymnophina" but emended by Müller 1831 and later authors as Gymnophiona: see Dundee 1989]. It is extant.

It was reranked as the suborder Gymnophiona by Huene (1954).

It was assigned to Pseudocentrophori by Huene (1954); to Lepospondyli by Carroll (1988); to Amphibia by Frank and Ramus (1996) and Hecht and LaDuke (1997); to Lissamphibia by Gauthier et al. (1989) and Meyer and Zardoya (2003); and to Lissamphibia by McGowan and Evans (1995), Gardner (2001), Zardoya and Meyer (2001), Evans and Sigogneau-Russell (2001) and Maddin et al. (2012).

Synonymy list
YearName and author
1814Gymnophiona Rafinesque
1954Gymnophiona Huene p. 8
1988Gymnophiona Carroll
1989Gymnophiona Gauthier et al. p. 349
1995Gymnophiona McGowan and Evans
1996Gymnophiona Frank and Ramus
1997Gymnophiona Hecht and LaDuke p. 96
2001Gymnophiona Evans and Sigogneau-Russell p. 260
2001Gymnophiona Gardner p. 334 fig. 8
2001Gymnophiona Zardoya and Meyer p. 7380
2003Gymnophiona Meyer and Zardoya
2012Gymnophiona Maddin et al.

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RankNameAuthor
kingdomAnimalia()
Triploblastica
Nephrozoa
Deuterostomia
phylumChordataHaeckel 1847
subphylumVertebrata
superclassGnathostomata
Osteichthyes()
RankNameAuthor
Sarcopterygii
subclassDipnotetrapodomorpha(Nelson 2006)
subclassTetrapodomorpha()
Tetrapoda()
Temnospondyli()
Lissamphibia()
orderGymnophionaRafinesque 1814
orderGymnophionaRafinesque 1814

If no rank is listed, the taxon is considered an unranked clade in modern classifications. Ranks may be repeated or presented in the wrong order because authors working on different parts of the classification may disagree about how to rank taxa.

Diagnosis
No diagnoses are available
Measurements
No measurements are available
Composition: phosphaticsubp
Environment: brackish, freshwater, terrestrialsubp
Locomotion: actively mobilesubo
Life habit: amphibioussubo
Diet: carnivoresubo
Created: 2009-07-20 21:44:54
Modified: 2009-07-20 23:44:54
Source: subo = suborder, subp = subphylum
References: Kiessling 2004, Carroll 1988, Hendy et al. 2009

Age range

Maximum range based only on fossils: base of the Sinemurian to the top of the Laventan or 199.30000 to 11.80000 Ma
Minimum age of oldest fossil (stem group age): 182.7 Ma

Collections (9 total)


Time interval Ma Country or state Original ID and collection number
Sinemurian - Pliensbachian199.3 - 182.7USA (Arizona) Eocaecilia micropodia (27716)
Berriasian145.0 - 139.8Morocco (Figuig) Gymnophiona indet. (45726)
Campanian - Maastrichtian83.6 - 66.0Sudan (Ash Shamaliyah) Gymnophiona indet. (38682)
Maastrichtian72.1 - 66.0Bolivia (Cochabamba) Gymnophiona indet. (12855)
Danian66.0 - 61.6Bolivia (Mizque) Gymnophiona indet. (13501)
Late/Upper Paleocene - Early/Lower Eocene58.7 - 48.6Brazil (Rio de Janeiro) Apodops pricei (77193)
Middle Miocene15.97 - 11.608Colombia (Huila) Gymnophiona indet. (186789)
Laventan13.8 - 11.8Colombia (Huila) Gymnophiona indet. (186668 188248)